distance. Each of these cases exemplifies a house with a hall (of two
storeys, open to the roof) set back from the street behind a solar
(usually a bedroom) raised above cellars or shops. In the case of (a) a
row of three tiny shops has encroached into the street in front of the
solar block. In (b) there are three booths directly underneath the solar
itself, two with doors opening outwards to receive customers approaching
growing tensions between Louis and his three elder sons, and especially with the co-emperor, Lothar. Deciding to distance himself from Lothar, in August 829 Louis put his godson Bernard, count of Septimania, in charge of the imperial household. The backlash followed in the spring of 830. Accusations of adultery between Bernard and Empress Judith, fuelled by fear of the chamberlain’s competition, were the pretext for this first revolt, in which the two elder sons, Lothar and Pippin, joined forces with a group of courtiers elbowed out by Bernard. Wala was one of the
caps. Some of these products were traded over long distances: russet
cloth from Colchester found buyers in the towns of the Baltic and the
Mediterranean. To follow such developments, the historian must consult
the records of customs officials at the sea-ports, and the
correspondence of agents working on behalf of international merchant
companies [ 35 ], [ 36 ]. Newly emergent cloth towns in the
Historia scholastica 1.37 ( PL 198.1088), although Comestor
actually says that Nimrod was ten cubits high (a cubit was the distance from
the elbow to the fingertips).
As in n. 4 above, Nimrod's connection with fire worship
appeared in Creation narratives in late antiquity.
anchorite should rely on hand signals between himself and his servants, as
monks and nuns do.
No one should hear your voice any distance
from your window. Even if someone hears you, they should not see your face.
Do not stretch your hand any distance out of your window, unless it is
between you and your servants. Do not look for long on another
person’s face, so you are not disturbed or tempted. It is appropriate
other in this way from a great distance, and, lifting their
poles, each tilts against the other. Either one or both fall, not
without some bodily injury, for, as they fall, they are carried along a
great way beyond each other by the impetus of their run, and wherever
the ice comes in contact with their heads, it scrapes off the skin
utterly. Often a leg or an arm is broken, if the victim falls with it
the anchorite could participate – albeit from a distance – in
the worship and spiritual life of a wider community. The host institution
might be a monastery, or a hospital, or under civic control, like a
gatehouse chapel; or a cell could be in royal or aristocratic patronage, as
the chapels in the Tower of London and a range of other royal and baronial
castles. 3 But the great majority
of anchorholds were attached to one of
The cave through which St Patrick was said to have
entered the underworld is in fact located on an island in Lough Derg,
Co. Donegal, and some distance from Kildare.
Hibernie silvestri – a derogatory term
frequently used in English sources of the time.
, the accuser, the guilty party and three witnesses’). On Isidore and legal procedure, see Loschiavo, ‘Isidore of Seville’, pp. 12–21.
5 Beardlessness here is synonymous with youth. Teofrastus’ youth partly explains his intrepid interventions and emphasises the distance in time from Book 1. This new and outspoken discussant is named after the philosopher Theophrastus, Aristotle’s successor as leader of the Peripatetic School, who came to Athens as a young man. He figures in Cicero’s Tusculan Disputations at 1.45, 3.21 and 69, 5.24–5, 85, 107.
6 The idea is that
installation in San Lorenzo.
Frederick II (emperor 1220–50): this followed a
pattern of increasing distance between Frederick and the Genoese, as
Frederick had repealed their trading privileges in Sicily and their
sovereignty over Siracusa after his imperial coronation in 1220. GA
3.62–6 gives the text of the two letters