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Political theory and the agency of the colonized

Recent scholarship in political thought has closely examined the relationship between European political ideas and colonialism, particularly the ways in which canonical thinkers supported or opposed colonial practices. However, little attention has been given to the engagement of colonized political and intellectual actors with European ideas. This book demonstrates that a full reckoning of colonialism's effects requires attention to the ways in which colonized intellectuals reacted to, adopted, and transformed these ideas, and to the political projects that their reactions helped to shape. It presents acts of hybrid theorization from across the world, from figures within societies colonized by the British, French, and Spanish empires who sought an end to their colonial status or important modifications to it. The book examines John Stuart Mill's neglect of the Bengali reformer, Rammohun Roy. Exploring what transpired with this potential for intellectual influence across cultural borders during the course of Mill's intellectual career is an unfinished project. The Indian Sociologist is a radical anti- colonial journal created, edited and published by Shyamji Krishnavarma, was an important mouthpiece of the early (pre- Gandhian) Indian nationalist movement's extremist faction at the international level. Jotirao Govindrao Phule fought for Sudratisudras who were abased, maltreated, and reviled as slaves proportionally to the fierceness with which their native warrior ancestors had resisted outside invasion. The book also talks about the French revolutionary ideology in Saint- Domingue, the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council, liberal universalism, and Pedro Paterno's Filipino deployment of French Lamarckianism.

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When ideas travel: political theory, colonialism, and the history of ideas
Burke A. Hendrix and Deborah Baumgold

Colonial exchanges practices for tools of resistance or reform, or alternatively to shore up local hierarchies and to entrench themselves within global patterns of violence and profiteering. Their exercises of agency were sometimes ambiguous, partaking both of resistance and acceptance at once. The space for political agency among the colonized was often profoundly constrained, and for that reason often exercised in peculiar and unexpected ways depending upon the political gaps available for action. Often their efforts sought to reach back to the metropole; usually these

in Colonial exchanges
The strange case of J. S. Mill
Lynn Zastoupil

of modern empires was the circulation of people, ideas, and texts between Europe and the world. These ‘circuits of knowledge and communication’, as Ann Laura Stoler and Frederick Cooper noted, were multidirectional, creating networks of exchange and influence that linked the world in multiple, complex ways.2 Gandhi provides ample confirmation of this. A colonial subject for nearly his entire life, Gandhi lived in British territories spanning three continents. He moved freely among India, South Africa, and Britain and formed transnational friendships, intellectual

in Colonial exchanges
The symbolism of largesse
Jenny Benham

Europe, as in many other civilisations, contracts were fulfilled and exchanges of goods made by means of gifts. Though in theory these gifts were voluntary, Mauss argued that in fact they were given and repaid under obligations. In his celebrated essay on gift giving, Mauss outlined a theory of the so-called potlatch . Mauss applied this Chinook word, originally meaning ‘to

in Peacemaking in the Middle Ages
Qāsim Amīn, empire, and saying ‘no’
Murad Idris

Stuart Mill, Herbert Spencer, and Charles Darwin, and to places such as Europe and the United States. These 181 182 182 Colonial exchanges comparisons, I suggest, are selective appropriations, colonial hesitations, and performances for particular audiences. On the other hand, attempts to address distinct audiences across different works, or to appeal to multiple audiences in one work, may not succeed. Authors can fail to calibrate their arguments to their intended audience. Different audiences can interpret one or many texts in numerous ways. And a thinker

in Colonial exchanges
Spencer, Krishnavarma, and The Indian Sociologist
Inder S. Marwah

  will suggest, animated the cosmopolitan bent of his anti-​imperialism. Second, both Spencer 44 44 Colonial exchanges and Krishnavarma treated the imperial condition as predicated on, and sustained by, a distinctive set of affects and sentiments; drawing on Spencer’s evolutionist account of social change, Krishnavarma understood his own activism (and, more broadly, the ascendant nationalist movement to which it contributed) as effecting the affective shifts preceding India’s political liberation. Finally, I  will argue that Spencer’s analysis of ‘militant

in Colonial exchanges
Phule, Paine, and the appeal to Queen Victoria
Jimmy Casas Klausen

abased, maltreated, and reviled as slaves proportionally to the fierceness with which their native warrior ancestors had resisted outside invasion. And, most unexpectedly, Phule held that further British intervention was necessary to correct this injustice. At a moment when some Indian elites were developing a critique of alien rule and arguments for greater political autonomy from Britain, Phule was appealing to Queen Victoria. The Sudratisudras, declared Phule, ‘will never forget the obligations of the Queen, 74 74 Colonial exchanges who alone can remove the bond

in Colonial exchanges
Yasmeen Daifallah

political and intellectual context of the Arab Left’s attempt to retain relevance in an atmosphere 218 218 Colonial exchanges predominated by statist and Islamist idioms in the 1980s and 1990s, and less as an abandonment of his earlier Marxist sympathies. The apparent distinction between Laroui’s early and late works should be seen as symptomatic of the intellectual trajectory of a generation of leftist Arab thinkers born in the 1920s and 1930s who reached intellectual maturity during the late colonial and early postcolonial periods in the 1950s and 1960s.5 Like other

in Colonial exchanges
Tim Rowse

the susceptibility of those whom they were trying to ‘improve’. 134 134 Colonial exchanges As the difficulties of colonial tutelage accumulated, those of fading liberal optimism looked to racially determinist theories of native incapacity that had become scientifically respectable since the mid-​eighteenth century inception of racial typologies of humanity. The consequent prescription was that colonial despotism must continue. Mantena’s ­examples –​Mill and James Fitzjames Stephen –​exhibit the ‘instabilities inherent’ in the liberal account of ‘legitimate empire

in Colonial exchanges
French revolutionary ideology in Saint- Domingue
Johnhenry Gonzalez

military crisis, immediately attempted to restore plantation production on the basis of a state-​directed system of sharecropping that historian Laurent Dubois has characterized as ‘Republican racism’.2 And yet it is neither coincidental nor inconsequential that from the earliest days of the Haitian insurrection, French republican language of liberty, equality, and ‘resistance to oppression’ appeared prominently in the pronouncements of the island’s ex-slaves in arms. 102 102 Colonial exchanges Aimé Césaire writes that it is ‘the worst error to consider the Revolution

in Colonial exchanges