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The symbolism of largesse
Jenny Benham

Europe, as in many other civilisations, contracts were fulfilled and exchanges of goods made by means of gifts. Though in theory these gifts were voluntary, Mauss argued that in fact they were given and repaid under obligations. In his celebrated essay on gift giving, Mauss outlined a theory of the so-called potlatch . Mauss applied this Chinook word, originally meaning ‘to

in Peacemaking in the Middle Ages
John K. Walton

12 Coastal resorts and cultural exchange in Europe, 1780–18701 john k. walton T owns have always been engines of cultural exchange, but certain urban types have been more active in promoting this than others. Particularly important have been capital cities, inland spas and other regional and local centres of polite society and recreational gatherings. From the early eighteenth century in England, and rather later in Europe, the seaside resort was to add to the list of urban centres of cultural exchange. Seaside settings brought together temporarily displaced

in Leisure cultures in urban Europe, c.1700–1870
Florence D’Souza

learned journals of his time, in order to arrive at as complete a picture as possible of Tod’s knowledge exchanges in India, through his miscellaneous writings and relationships with his colleagues, friends, subordinates and hierarchical superiors in the field. In order to carry this out, I will use biographical details on Tod prior to his departure for India from various archival

in Knowledge, mediation and empire
Clarisse Coulomb

10 City of pleasure or ville des plaisirs? Urban leisure culture exchanges between England and France through travel writing (1700–1820) clarisse coulomb I n 1698, the Englishman Martin Lister went to Paris as a medical attendant to the Earl of Portland, who was negotiating with the French about the Spanish succession. Lister transformed the notes that he took on his journey into a travel memoir, entitled A Journey to Paris in the Year 1698.1 The same year, the French Huguenot Maximilien Misson published his Memoires et observations faites par un voyageur en

in Leisure cultures in urban Europe, c.1700–1870
Jill Steward

11 The role of inland spas as sites of transnational cultural exchange in the production of European leisure culture (1750–1870) jill steward B aths and spas have a long history as leisure settings. In the ancient world, luxurious Roman baths offered a model of what a leisure resort might aspire to, as embellished with gardens, promenades, gymnasiums, libraries and museums, they constituted ‘a microcosm of many of the things that make life attractive’1. For this reason, they attracted plenty of customers uninterested in their health, serviced by motley

in Leisure cultures in urban Europe, c.1700–1870
Elyse Semerdjian

This article discusses how Armenians have collected, displayed and exchanged the bones of their murdered ancestors in formal and informal ceremonies of remembrance in Dayr al-Zur, Syria – the final destination for hundreds of thousands of Armenians during the deportations of 1915. These pilgrimages – replete with overlapping secular and nationalist motifs – are a modern variant of historical pilgrimage practices; yet these bones are more than relics. Bone rituals, displays and vernacular memorials are enacted in spaces of memory that lie outside of official state memorials, making unmarked sites of atrocity more legible. Vernacular memorial practices are of particular interest as we consider new archives for the history of the Armenian Genocide. The rehabilitation of this historical site into public consciousness is particularly urgent, since the Armenian Genocide Memorial Museum and Martyr’s Church at the centre of the pilgrimage site were both destroyed by ISIS (Islamic State in Syria) in 2014.

Human Remains and Violence: An Interdisciplinary Journal
Australia, America and the Fulbright Program
Authors: Alice Garner and Diane Kirkby

This book recounts the history of the Fulbright Program in Australia, locating academic exchange in the context of US cultural diplomacy and revealing a complex relationship between governments, publicly funded research and the integrity of academic independence. The study is the first in-depth analysis of the Fulbright exchange program in a single country. Drawing on previously unexplored archives and a new oral history, the authors investigate the educational, political and diplomatic challenges experienced by Australian and American scholars who won awards and those who managed the complex bi-national program. The book begins with the scheme’s origins, moves through its Australian establishment during the early Cold War, Vietnam War dilemmas, civil rights and gender parity struggles and the impacts of mid-to-late twentieth century belt-tightening. How the program’s goal of ‘mutual understanding’ was understood and enacted across six decades lies at the heart of the book, which weaves institutional and individual experiences together with broader geopolitical issues. Bringing a complex and nuanced analysis to the Australia–US relationship, the authors offer fresh insights into the global influence of the Fulbright Program. It is a compelling account of academic exchange as cultural diplomacy. It offers a critical appraisal of Fulbright achievements and limitations in avoiding political influence, integrating gender and racial diversity, absorbing conflict and dissent, and responding to economic fluctuations and social change.

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Print, reading and social change in early modern Ireland

Traditionally our understanding of that world has been filtered through the lenses of war, plantation and colonisation. This book explores the lives of people living in early modern Ireland through the books and printed ephemera which they bought, borrowed or stole from others. In economic terms, the technology of print was of limited significance in sixteenth- and seventeenth-century Ireland, employing no more than a handful of individuals on a full-time basis. It uses the perspective of the world of print as a vantage point from which to observe the shifts in early modern Irish society. To do this it exploits two important attributes of print. First, the printed word had a material form and hence by examining how it was created, traded and owned as a commodity it is possible to chart some of the economic changes that took place in early modern Ireland as a traditional exchange economy gave way to a more commercial one. The second important attribute of print was that it had the potential to transmit ideas. The book discusses the social context of print, its social meaning, and with what contemporaries thought of the material and intellectual commodity that printing with movable type brought to Ireland. It also attempts to construct how contemporaries used the books they had bought, borrowed, stolen or heard others read aloud. The efforts of booksellers and others ensured that contemporaries had a range of books to which they could to turn for profit and pleasure according to their needs.

James Tod’s journeys among the Rajputs

James Tod (1782-1835) spent twenty-two years in India (1800-1822), during the last five of which he was Political Agent of the British Government in India to the Western Rajput States in north-west India. His book studies Tod’s relationships with particular Rajput leaders and with the Rajputs as a group in general, in order to better understand his attempts to portray their history, geographical moorings and social customs to British and European readers. The book highlights Tod’s apparently numerous motivations in writing on the Rajputs: to bring knowledge about the Rajputs into European circles, to demonstrate that the Rajputs maintained historical records from the early middle ages and were thus not a primitive people without awareness of their own history, and to establish possible ethnic links between the warrior-like Rajputs and the peoples of Europe, as also between the feudal institutions of Rajputana and Europe. Fierce criticisms in Tod’s time of his ethnic and institutional hypotheses about connections between Rajputs and Europeans illustrate that Tod’s texts did not leave his readers indifferent.

The approach adopted uses available documents to go beyond a binary opposition between the colonisers and the colonised in India, by focusing on traces of friendly exchanges between Tod and his British colleagues on the one hand, and on the other hand, various members of the kingdoms of western India, with whom they interacted. Under themes like landscape, anthropology, science, Romantic literature, approaches to government policy, and knowledge exchanges in India and in London, this volume analyses Tod’s role as a mediator of knowledge through his travels across a little-known part of the British Empire in the early 19th century.

Pain in Dutch stock trade discourses and practices, 1600–1750
Inger Leemans

11 The economics of pain: pain in Dutch stock trade discourses and practices, 1600–1750 Inger Leemans In 1720, the first international stock exchange crisis hit the financial markets of Paris, London and the Dutch Republic. The ‘mass hysteria’ seems to have fascinated, bewildered and outraged the public. Hundreds of pamphlets, theatre plays and allegories were printed, translated and distributed across the countries involved in the South Sea Bubble, the Mississippi scheme, or wind trade, as the crisis would be referred to in England, France and the Netherlands

in The hurt(ful) body