seventeenth century, for example, were based in coffee houses, allowing interested individuals to exchange a small sum of money for refreshment, discussion, negotiations and the exchange of ideas, and often included the sharing of news both verbally and through pamphlets and newsletters. If we take the sciences as one starting point, academies were formally established in London, Paris, Florence and Rome during the seventeenth century (Riskin, 2008 ; Hooper-Greenhill, 1992 ) and are seen by many as the first significant move towards professional meeting places beyond the
also see it linked with terms such as knowledge transfer or knowledge
mobilisation. Each of these concepts is slightly different.
Dissemination refers to the active process of communicating research
findings in a targeted and personalised way to identified relevant audiences
who may be interested in the findings and/or able to benefit from them.
Knowledge transfer extends beyond this dissemination phase and refers
to an often lengthier process that includes both dissemination and the
exchange and application of new knowledge in order to provide more
or promotional approach. People are not ‘coerced’ and some will not buy in to the message; ‘social marketing is a holistic approach to behaviour change that, depending on the target audience and the cause, may use neither [the message nor the product]’ (Eagle et al. , 2013 : 5). Indeed some social marketing theories encourage more participation amongst users, depicting a model of ‘exchange’, or using ‘networks’ of those targeted to co-create materials (Eagle et al. , 2013 ).
One of the difficulties with marketing of this type is that people are
explore a number of projects created through this scheme. http://artsscience-media.uchicago.edu/#Homepage
The European Digital Art and Science Network is a European-funded project that aims to bring digital artists together with researchers. The network aims to foster intercultural collaborations and interdisciplinary exchange between researchers and digital artists. http://www.aec.at/artandscience/
The Synergy Project, funded by the National Science Foundation in the USA, brings together artists together with researchers. Artworks produced during
digital research communication. But are these really what the ‘audience’ wants? In relation to medical evidence, Bernhardt et al. ( 2011 ) argue that current practice in research dissemination does not match the information needs or preferences of users and that researchers should consider ways of embedding Web 2.0 technologies in their dissemination practice. What they term dissemination 2.0 ‘takes advantage of the core foundations of Web 2.0 applications – collaboration, participation, multi-directional information exchange – to improve current dissemination
provide knowledge and expertise of value to policymakers, government and society, seeks to foster university partnerships which align research and other activities to public policy needs (Bogenschneider and Corbett, 2010 ). There are also a number of other examples of organisations which are seen to directly align with policy-associated needs, for example, Science Shops and knowledge exchange offices, as well as research agencies, policyfocused units and research centres with specialist expertises which all provide clearer routes to academic expertise (see also