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, crossing borders to meet in shared social spaces in Rome or motherhouses and daughterhouses across Europe, exchanging ideas in meetings, seminars and workshops and communicating via epistolary correspondence. Though religious institutes have always been international, the degree of their transnationalism has altered over time. Exchange and sharing of educational praxis were commonplace amongst the larger teaching congregations during the growth and dynamism of the ‘teaching age’ of nineteenth-century religious life. 12 The first half of the twentieth century, a period

in Catholic nuns and sisters in a secular age

female friends waned. 11 Oral historian Elizabeth Roberts notes that homosocial relationships for working-class married women were often more about neighbourliness and communal sociability than about intimate friendship, especially after children were born. Female networks supported daily living through exchanges of goods and services but with a ‘wary mutuality’. 12 Recent scholars suggest the demotion of women’s friendships from their central location in women’s lives upon marriage. 13 Perhaps this explains why Deborah M. Withers writing on the 1970s women

in Catholic nuns and sisters in a secular age

Monopoly. Beginning in the post-famine decades, he maintains, the wives and mothers of middleclass farming families teamed up with Ireland’s newly powerful Catholic priests, bringing the Church’s message into homes and thus instilling it in future generations. Like Michelet, Inglis emphasises the power and control that Irish women gained by combining forces with the Catholic clergy. In exchange for supporting the Church, he asserts, women secured private authority within the home.23 Journalist Mary Kenny goes further as she explores the effects of the bonds between

in Irish women and the creation of modern Catholicism, 1850–1950
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Post-war modernity and religious vocations

mother was delighted. My father was delighted too, but my father didn’t want me to come to England, he wanted me to stay in Ireland. But for me, I felt that England was more of a missionary country, that there was more need for religious in England, so that’s why I came to England. 66 Many sisters, like this one, also acknowledged the pull of the missions. Irish women religious were a distinctive subset of the worldwide Irish diaspora and their border-crossing was an important development of the nineteenth-century transnational exchanges that were part and parcel of

in Catholic nuns and sisters in a secular age
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Changing ministries

, going to the cinema or whatever. … And what was more interesting was often they would talk about their own faith, which usually was, I mean very often appalling negative experiences of schools or nuns or priests, not necessarily sexual, but of repression, of feeling not understood or they were often difficult children so they’d not felt accepted. But so often they wanted to talk, not necessarily about faith specifically, not about God, but about values, about what they were doing. 54 She experienced a relationship of exchange: of giving and receiving. Her response

in Catholic nuns and sisters in a secular age

proclivities (one interviewee had assumed I was gay simply because I lived in Brighton, many assumed I was a militant atheist because of my academic status), an honest and reciprocal exchange ensured we both discovered what we wanted to about the other. Moreover, a non-dialogic interview technique can serve to sever natural conversation – if I am probing into the interviewees’ intimate lives, then it is surely unfair

in The Pope and the pill

commission members separated into groups to discuss the implications of what had been said, and de Locht paced the balcony clutching his rosary. 2 Häring had, in fact, understated the significance of de Locht’s challenge; it called in to question not only the content of Catholic sexual theology, but also the processes through which this theology was constructed. The exchange between the two therefore

in The Pope and the pill

in origin through the approval of God himself. And the law of terrestrial monarchy is extracted from that greatest rule of nature’s law, for it is not legitimate for an inferior lord to remove an immovable possession, especially one held in mortmain, without the permission of the chief lord. This is because in all those things that lord [alone] has the right to escheat, and exchange of anything between men without his consent is obviously unrighteous. It is also clear that men who have exchanged a lord’s goods by emendation, sale, donation or judgement have

in John Wyclif

the Holy Sepulchre in 1954 joined an international Confederation (later Association of Regular Canonesses of the Holy Sepulchre) with six other communities on the continent (Belgium, the Netherlands and Spain), Brazil and in what was then Zaire. The Syon Bridgettines retained their autonomy, but travelled to discuss renewal matters with Bridgettine abbeys in Uden and Weert in the Netherlands and Altomunster in Germany. 21 Such transnational exchanges were opportunities to discuss the implications of and develop ideas on renewal, and often led to lifelong

in Catholic nuns and sisters in a secular age
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of figurative language ( 9ii and iii ), the impossibility of literal falsehood in Scripture ( 10 ), and the expression of time in scripture ( 11ii and 11iii ), topics that are clearly informed by his desire to explain the sometimes elusive truthfulness of the text. Roughly contemporary with the Postilla are Wyclif’s academic exchanges with his senior contemporary at Oxford, the Carmelite John Kenningham. These took place between 1372 and 1374, and are recorded as a series of determinations, academic debates which would normally

in John Wyclif