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C. E. Beneš

first in his book On the city of God , as does Tullius in his book On duties . 58 They relate that when Marcus Regulus, a great Roman consul, was captured by the Carthaginians at the same time as the Romans seized many young Carthaginian men, this Regulus was sent to Rome to arrange an exchange of prisoners, agreeing under oath to return if the proposed exchange was not approved. Yet when he arrived in Rome he

in Jacopo Da Varagine’s Chronicle of the city of Genoa
C. E. Beneš

capitani lasted up to the year of the Lord 1291, at which time rule returned to the podestà. Now, however, the capitano is elected from outside the city; the abbot and the elders continue their role in the regime, and so this kind of government continues for now. Whether the regime will change again, we do not know; but if it must be changed at some point, we ask God that it should always be exchanged for something better. But there is no

in Jacopo Da Varagine’s Chronicle of the city of Genoa
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C. E. Beneš

chapter and the monks of San Siro over the relics of Saint Syrus. In all of this, Genoa's citizens were confronting—as were their fellow citizens in other Italian cities of the day—fundamental questions of citizenship, sovereignty, economic exchange, and social harmony: What is the most effective sort of government that respects its citizens’ rights and privileges? How much profit constitutes usury? What are a citizen's responsibilities to his

in Jacopo Da Varagine’s Chronicle of the city of Genoa
E.A. Jones

As a major port in cross-channel trade, Rye (East Sussex) was much involved in the exchange of goods, people and ideas with northern mainland Europe, and it is not surprising that there was early interest in Protestantism here. During the years immediately following Henry VIII’s ‘Act of Supremacy’ (1534), amidst vehement doctrinal debate, the town descended into factionalism and near civil war. 58 Through all this

in Hermits and anchorites in England, 1200–1550
E.A. Jones

abandoned the subject, and turned to address his sermons to merchants and the rich, often asserting that no one could enjoy riches in this world, and an abundance of material things, and still hope to enter the kingdom of heaven. And he so dwelt on the topic that some worthy men of the town, but for the workings of divine mercy, would have fallen into the error of despair. Then he wished to exchange the common life for the solitary

in Hermits and anchorites in England, 1200–1550
C. E. Beneš

Dondedeus Bos captured that ship and brought the Holy Cross and the other relics to Genoa, where he presented the cross to the Genoese commune and the church of San Lorenzo as a great gift. The other relics he kept for himself, hoping to acquire later a not-inconsiderable treasure from some prince in exchange for them. But because God did not want the city of Genoa to be despoiled of such treasures, after some time the aforesaid relics were

in Jacopo Da Varagine’s Chronicle of the city of Genoa
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business of the merchant: William Cely 1487 To the medieval merchant, accurate information was as valuable a resource as the goods in which he traded. In their letters, where these survive, the historian can observe the eager exchange of news regarding markets, economic competitors, and the larger context of diplomacy and war. The foreign agent or factor of a firm was naturally concerned to present his

in Towns in medieval England

boasting, wrongfully curried favour with secular men everywhere too greatly; and it is worse that they willingly flatter unworthy men in search of praise. 9 [6] We delude ourselves with entertainers, and give them our money, and we willingly offer flattery in exchange for shameful words; we desire praise and to shield ourselves from insult. All of these are vain

in The political writings of Archbishop Wulfstan of York
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leading proponents of the Reform – Archbishop Dunstan of Canterbury, Archbishop Oswald of York, and Bishop Æthelwold of Winchester – sought royal sanction for the seizure of alienated Church lands and the expulsion of regional aristocrats from monastic property. In exchange, they offered financial and ideological support to Edgar’s attempts to further centralise the kingdom’s government under the

in The political writings of Archbishop Wulfstan of York
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studied by Hilton is the west midlands market town of Halesowen, founded in the mid-thirteenth century on its land by a monastic community. Although comprising only six hundred or so inhabitants, its court rolls from the late thirteenth and early fourteenth centuries reveal a diversity of crafts and services and a market which functioned as a centre of exchange for the surrounding countryside. 39 It is similarly from manorial

in Towns in medieval England