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Instituting the Capital–Labour Exchange in the United Kingdom

4 Making People Work for Wages: Instituting the Capital–Labour Exchange in the United Kingdom The emergence of large-scale industrial production and waged labour changed the face of the world from the late eighteenth century onwards: the industrial revolution. Making workers sell their labour to capitalists owning factories was at the centre of this great transformation, although, as we propose in the next chapter, only in conjunction with modern and capitalist slavery in the New World. In MEAB, it was argued that the conception of an abstracted and closed

in Inequality and Democratic Egalitarianism
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Ontologies of connection, reconstruction of memory

migration. Through voyaging and migration, islander societies expanded, creating and sustaining zones of engagement for millennia before Europeans came. Travel stimulated an imaginary of exchange, the second theme. Exchange cannot be understood with a utilitarian mindset; it is rather an expression of relationship, association and alliance –​engagement broadly speaking. The third theme is the new world context. European colonialism conjoined the Pacific to other civilisations in more extensive engagement. This was a violent and disordering historical experience for the

in Debating civilisations
The impact of Paris Université Club’s US tours and the individual in sports diplomacy

ways that policy speeches or press accounts cannot convey. Interactions with private individuals can be potent tools, a window into a society, an up-close personal exchange of ideas that can cut through officially disseminated information. The PUC tours were thus sterling examples of the merits of sports exchanges as elements of diplomacy, even though they were not government-sponsored or even public–private partnerships. Rather, Feinberg’s organisation proved the power of the individual, what Giles Scott-Smith calls the ‘new diplomacy’, in which private citizens can

in Sport and diplomacy
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The hybridisation of contracting

consensual exchange relationship between two legal subjects to which the judge grants legal force as long as the nudum pactum can at least be endowed with a causa . 2 Within the dynamics of social fragmentation, where one and the same contract appears as the simultaneous expression of different and divergent rationalities, the old two-person relationship of the contract has metamorphosed into a

in Critical theory and legal autopoiesis
Imaginaries, power, connected worlds

and a survey of critical paradigmatic alternatives. Some comments on the interaction and paradigmatic alternatives preface a fuller introduction of my principal concept. To begin with, I  emphasise the ties instituted by existing and coalescing imaginaries between different societies. Imagined connections and obstructions produce a remarkable diversity of linkages instantiated by exchange, adaptation and reform. Civilisations are made meaningful and therefore ‘real’ by the commerce of ideas, goods, aesthetics, political and legal models, sciences and techniques and

in Debating civilisations
‘Marx’s Economy and Beyond’ and Other Essays
Editors: Mark Harvey and Norman Geras

This book arose out of a friendship between a political philosopher and an economic sociologist, and their recognition of an urgent political need to address the extreme inequalities of wealth and power in contemporary societies.

The book provides a new analysis of what generates inequalities in rights to income, property and public goods in contemporary societies. It claims to move beyond Marx, both in its analysis of inequality and exploitation, and in its concept of just distribution. In order to do so, it critiques Marx’s foundational Labour Theory of Value and its closed-circuit conception of the economy. It points to the major historical transformations that create educational and knowledge inequalities, inequalities in rights to public goods that combine with those to private wealth. In two historical chapters, it argues that industrial capitalism introduced new forms of coerced labour in the metropolis alongside a huge expansion of slavery and indentured labour in the New World, with forms of bonded labour lasting well into the twentieth century. Only political struggles, rather than any economic logic of capitalism, achieved less punitive forms of employment. It is argued that these were only steps along a long road to challenge asymmetries of economic power and to realise just distribution of the wealth created in society.

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realizes that dialectical arguments are formed a priori without losing sight of what occurs in social and political reality. For the latter reason, epistemology cannot avoid having a political character; science is socially produced, and carries social and political implications. Dialectics is also a method because it derives from the exchange of argumentation between scientific subjects. Since dialectics has social consequences, it needs accountability criteria in order to be socially acceptable. Dialectics is accountable to society because it brings with it certain

in Critical theory and epistemology
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Making sense of Europe through data and statistics

chapter, and through building upon a political sociological approach grounded in an inclusive ontology of Europe as set out in the Introduction of this book (Carter et al., 2015),2 we argue that education in Europe can and should be seen through a different lens. First, and as we have argued elsewhere, we conceptualise education in Europe as an autonomous policy space that is both common and complementary and built on historical and contemporary exchanges of ideas and practices (Lawn, 2006). Second, and this is the very focus of this chapter, we argue that the physical

in Governing Europe’s spaces
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A transnational approach to co-operative history

-operators as well, and after 1918 they devoted much time to the question of how to apply co-operative principles to the re-organisation of trade, not only locally and nationally but also internationally. This book is concerned with the transnational history of co-operation, an area which has hitherto been relatively little researched.4 From its beginnings co-operation was shaped by the transfer and exchange of ideas across national boundaries, and from 1895 it also had its own international organisation, the International Co-operative Alliance (ICA). The book focuses on co

as they appear at first sight to be. This chapter traces the transition from welfare to social exclusion sketched above, and the various theoretical responses it has elicited. 1 Communities of choice The idea that political justice should deal in issues about the distribution of roles and resources, presupposes a political community which corresponds to an economic system for production and exchange

in Political concepts