This book explores the religious, political and cultural implications of a collision of highly charged polemic prompted by the mass ejection of Puritan ministers from the Church of England in 1662, providing an in-depth study of this heated exchange centring on the departing ministers' farewell sermons. Many of these valedictions, delivered by hundreds of dissenting preachers in the weeks before Bartholomew's Day, would be illegally printed and widely distributed, provoking a furious response from government officials, magistrates and bishops. The book re-interprets the political significance of ostensibly moderate Puritan clergy, arguing that their preaching posed a credible threat to the restored political order.
violation of the self was experienced through the cultural filter of
normative emotional expression. One fact which is clearly revealed from the
folklore is that magic was a form of social currency, an instrument in power
struggles and socio-economic strategizing. Magical knowledge and practice
can be seen both as a tactic , 9 and as units of symbolic cultural capital 10 which could be exchanged
for prestige, recognition, or material goods
, the rise of Nazism, and the
economic crisis and sense of national humiliation which had helped bring
it about, were largely a consequence of Britain’s treatment of Germany at
the Versailles conference. Germany’s reaction to this treatment, even if part
of that reaction was an unacceptable anti-Semitism, was a natural consequence. The Manchester Quakers sought to retain a friendly relationship
with Germany, including an annual exchange of students, until the outbreak
of war. While the London Quakers were prepared from 1933 to lend organised support to refugees
over its connection with the wider Protestant nation. This chapter will look
at the practical relationship forged between recusants and Anglicans in the
parishes, and then turn to the public exchanges between the two communities,
reviewing the rhetorical stratagems called upon by Catholics variously to
court or critique the church by law established, and charting the shifts and
reverses within the Protestant response. I
exchanges, engineered on both sides, which, from the mid-nineteenth century, sought to
define the relationship between Manchester Jewry and the civic authorities
of the locality. From the perspective of the city, Manchester tolerance was not
only to be repaid by civic virtue; it was the alchemy which transformed strangers into citizens, foreigners into Britishers, Jewish aliens into British Jews.
From the perspective of the Jewish communal leadership, social integration,
acculturation and civic commitment were the acknowledged price for tolerance. That the contract of
veteran Bengali politician, Huseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy.40 Suhrawardy was
appointed (briefly) as Pakistan’s Law Minister soon after his return from London,
but it was not until 1956, when he became Prime Minister of Pakistan, that the
first thousand passports were granted to former seamen or their survivors or
Pakistan’s preferential exchange rate for foreign currency earned through
business exports, but not for immigrant remittances, reflected divisions of status
rather than the East–West divide. The National Federation of Pakistani Welfare
The Protestant critics of the early modern Catholic Church denounced what they sometimes described as its sensual approach to the sacred. In the convents, behavioural guidebooks exhorted the Sisters to break away from their senses and to move towards a more perfect a-sensory contemplative state, where prayer no longer needed sensate perceptions to stimulate the soul. Yet the personal writings of the nuns are full of references to the senses; they provide valuable details on the individual experience of the cloistered life. Women taking the veil exchanged a sensory world for another, in which the sights, smells and sounds evoked the sacred. In prayer, they also felt with what they described as their ‘inner senses’. Although little used until now, the prism of the study of the senses provides a fascinating insight into the lived experience of women in early modern convents.
in relation to binary logic.
We have therefore chosen to begin with the more familiar imagery of the
lips, and then select several of her other important images of fluidity for
discussion. We would stress again, however, that there is far more in the
text of Elemental Passions than we comment upon here; and that the
allusive and poetical nature of the text is open to a range of interpretations
beyond the ones we offer.
The Irigarayan exchange of fluids between lips can be taken as a model for
exchange between subjects. In the
woman – a woman who is free to be herself and to
speak and sing in her own voice – can do that.
Woman’s love is a love which cannot be appropriated, cannot be
owned. ‘My love with you’ is characterized as a song which is not, the text
says, ‘a gift’: it is not part of an economy of exchange like a marriage
dowry. In previous chapters we have shown how the appropriation of
women by men is interconnected with binary logic. If the subject — of
philosophy or of culture – is exclusively male, then, as Lévi–Strauss has
shown (1949), women can be owned by men and can serve
still recognisable central street arrangement, which has changed little despite major redevelopment outside this area ( Figure 2.1 ).
By the seventeenth century, Leeds had a population of some 6,000–7,000 and was known as a centre of woollen manufacturing, but with an extra dimension which distinguished it from neighbouring West Riding wool towns. Its geographic location, with an agricultural hinterland to the north and east and manufacturing towns and villages to the south and west, made it an ideal location as a place of exchange. Hence