This volume considers transnational and intercultural aspects of early modern
theatre, drama and performance. Its twelve chapters, loosely cosmographically
grouped into West, North and South, compose a complex image of early modern
theatre connections as a socially, economically, politically and culturally
realised tissue of links, networks, influences and paths of exchange. With
particular attention to itinerant performers, court festival, and the
significant black, Muslim and Jewish impact, they combine disciplines and
methods to place Shakespeare and his contemporaries in the wider context of
early performance culture in English, Spanish, French, Dutch, German, Czech and
Italian speaking Europe. Their shared methodological approach examines
transnational connections by linking abstract notions of wider theatre
historical significance to concrete historical facts: archaeological findings,
archival records, visual artefacts, and textual evidence. Crucial to the volume
is this systematic yoking of theories with surviving historical evidence for the
performative event – whether as material object, text, performative routine,
theatregrams, rituals, festivities, genres, archival evidence or visual
documentation. This approach enables it to explore the infinite variety of early
modern performance culture by expanding the discourse, questioning the received
canon, and rethinking the national restrictions of conventional maps to reveal a
theatre that truly is without borders.
This revisionary biographical study documents that Spenser was the protégé of a
circle of churchmen who expected him to take holy orders, but between 1574, when
he left Pembroke College, and 1579, when he published the Shepheardes Calender,
he decided against a career in the church. At Pembroke College and in London,
Spenser watched the Elizabethan establishment crack down on independent
thinking. The sequestration of Edmund Grindal was a watershed event in his early
life, as was his encounter with Philip Sidney, the dedicatee of to the
Shepheardes Calender. Once Spenser exchanged the role of shepherd-priest for
that of shepherd-poet, he understood that his role was not just to celebrate the
victories of Protestant England over the Spanish empire, immortalize in verse
the virtues of Gloriana’s knights, but also to ‘fashion a noble person in
vertuous and gentle discipline’. The received biography of the early Spenser
emphasizes Gabriel Harvey, who is reported to have been Spenser’s tutor. Brink
shows that Harvey could not have been Spenser’s tutor and argues that Harvey
published Familiar Letters (1580) to promote his ambition to be named University
Orator at Cambridge. Brink shows that Spenser had already received preferment.
His life is contextualized by comparisons with contemporaries including Philip
Sidney, Lodowick Bryskett, Shakespeare, and Sir Walter Ralegh. Brink’s
provocative study, based upon a critical re-evaluation of manuscript and printed
sources, emphasizes Philip Sidney over Harvey and shows that Spenser’s
appointment as secretary to Lord Grey was a preferment celebrated even years
later by Camden.
Spenser’s Busirane and Donne’s ‘A Valediction of my name, in the window’
. They are also a synecdoche for the epistles (a material, fragmentary version of metonymy) that were, or might be, exchanged by parties hostile to their interests. Magical in their efficacy, the characters are imagined to exert a continued potency, literally ‘superscrib[ing]’ the influence of those who would threaten the amorous or political integrity of the signatory.
The proposition that undergirds ‘A Valediction of my name, in the window’, that a full person could be resurrected from these vestigial ‘grav’d’ ‘characters’, implicates the
will make the case in Chapter 4 ,
‘Southerne shepheardes boye’, that from 1574 to 1578 Spenser was
probably in London working for John Young, Master of Pembroke and then Bishop
of Rochester in 1578.
There is no solid evidence of why or how Spenser moved from
service under Bishop Young to the patronage of Arthur Lord Grey of Wilton. At
some point between 1578 and 1579, Spenser exchanged the role of shepherd-priest
. 1–25. In fact, much of the recent critical discourse concerning cultural transfer and exchange with Italy employs such terminology, although not necessarily with conceptual precision. One may cite the titles of three (further) collections of essays edited by Michele Marrapodi: Shakespeare and Intertextuality: The Transition of Cultures between Italy and England in the Early Modern Period , Biblioteca Di Cultura (Rome: Bulzoni, 2000); Shakespeare, Italy, and Intertextuality (Manchester: Manchester University Pres, 2004); and (with A. J. Hoenselaars) The Italian
quest of a flower that promises joy are turned to stone if they alight on the wrong plant. Almintor, a hunter, who goes in search of this flower in order to prove his love for Naschina, is duly calcified. Naschina, disguised as a shepherd, travels herself to the island and manages to outwit the enchantress and undo the spell placed on Almintor and others. At the end, she becomes the sole ruler of this island world, exchanging the lassitude of Arcadia for a sphere in which heroic self-realization is possible. R.F. Foster has noted that lurking beneath the archaisms of
no remedy to hand, I prescribed cold water held in the mouth and often spat out’, which worked well. The Revd Holyoak’s son was prescribed a pomegranate syrup described as particularly suitable for measles, but ‘this was not to hand’ so a different one was used ‘with happy effect’.
Recipes were circulated and exchanged among lay people and from physicians to lay people. Hall refers to this explicitly in four reports. Two of them add an extra link to the chain, in that the transmitted recipe came originally from one of Hall’s printed sources. Squire Pakington
bitter anagrams of each other’s names. Calvin referred to
Rabelaesius as Rabei laesus , the ‘mad man’.
Rabelais dubbed J. Calvinus a ‘ Jan Cul’ , that is
‘Jackass’ (hardly an anagram, but effective).
Puttenham recorded that Queen Elizabeth herself took
pleasure in turning courtiers’ names into anagrams (note the
absent H and the
will show that Shakespeare remembers Paul’s tale of this
donation in Galatians 1:1 during Feste’s exchange with
Sebastian in 4.1.
Elizabethans who were regular readers of the Bible
could not have failed to recognize a multitude of parallels between
the problems Paul confronted in Corinth and those which Shakespeare
contrived for his Illyria. Paul also reprimanded Christians for
were distant, to send written interrogatories to be answered under
oath in the presence of an officer. In 1533 the practice of sending
interrogatories from Rome to England and vice versa was outlawed by
the Act in Restraint of Appeals (24 Henry VIII, c. 12).
John’s next lines ridicule the name
‘Pope’ and exchange it for ‘Italian priest’,
a common epithet in Shakespeare’s time. The