learned journals of his time, in order to arrive at as complete
a picture as possible of Tod’s knowledge exchanges in India,
through his miscellaneous writings and relationships with his
colleagues, friends, subordinates and hierarchical superiors in the
In order to carry this out, I will use biographical
details on Tod prior to his departure for India from various archival
Photographic subjects examines photography at royal celebrations during the
reigns of Wilhelmina (1898–1948) and Juliana (1948–80), a period spanning the
zenith and fall of Dutch rule in Indonesia. It is the first monograph in English
on the Dutch monarchy and the Netherlands’ modern empire in the age of mass and
amateur photography. This book reveals how Europeans and Indigenous people
used photographs taken at Queen’s Day celebrations to indicate the ritual uses
of portraits of Wilhelmina and Juliana in the colonies. Such photographs were
also objects of exchange across imperial networks. Photograph albums were sent
as gifts by Indigenous royals in ‘snapshot diplomacy’ with the Dutch monarchy.
Ordinary Indonesians sent photographs to Dutch royals in a bid for recognition
and subjecthood. Professional and amateur photographers associated the Dutch
queens with colonial modernity and with modes of governing difference across an
empire of discontiguous territory and ethnically diverse people. The gendered
and racial dimensions of Wilhelmina’s and Juliana’s engagement with their
subjects emerge uniquely in photographs, which show these two women as female
kings who related to their Dutch and Indigenous subjects in different visual
registers. Photographic subjects advances methods in the use of photographs
for social and cultural history, reveals the entanglement of Dutch and
Indonesian histories in the twentieth century, and provides a new interpretation
of Wilhelmina and Juliana as imperial monarchs. The book is essential for
scholars and students of colonial history, South-east Asian and Indonesian
studies, and photography and visual studies.
James Tod (1782-1835) spent twenty-two years in India (1800-1822), during the last five of which he was Political Agent of the British Government in India to the Western Rajput States in north-west India. His book studies Tod’s relationships with particular Rajput leaders and with the Rajputs as a group in general, in order to better understand his attempts to portray their history, geographical moorings and social customs to British and European readers. The book highlights Tod’s apparently numerous motivations in writing on the Rajputs: to bring knowledge about the Rajputs into European circles, to demonstrate that the Rajputs maintained historical records from the early middle ages and were thus not a primitive people without awareness of their own history, and to establish possible ethnic links between the warrior-like Rajputs and the peoples of Europe, as also between the feudal institutions of Rajputana and Europe. Fierce criticisms in Tod’s time of his ethnic and institutional hypotheses about connections between Rajputs and Europeans illustrate that Tod’s texts did not leave his readers indifferent. The approach adopted uses available documents to go beyond a binary opposition between the colonisers and the colonised in India, by focusing on traces of friendly exchanges between Tod and his British colleagues on the one hand, and on the other hand, various members of the kingdoms of western India, with whom they interacted. Under themes like landscape, anthropology, science, Romantic literature, approaches to government policy, and knowledge exchanges in India and in London, this volume analyses Tod’s role as a mediator of knowledge through his travels across a little-known part of the British Empire in the early 19th century.
why McCoy failed to develop a comprehensive domestic collecting mechanism within Australia.
The third section continues the argument by exploring McCoy’s connections with, and
reliance on, British natural history dealers. In doing so, this section questions the notions
of centres and peripheries in the study of colonial networks. The final section looks at the
role of scientific exchanges and McCoy’s attitude to these within scientific networks.
This demonstrates that McCoy’s museum was a product of his procurement networks, which
about the enjoyment of those attending. Instead, organisers saw the informal conversation and exchange that the rally facilitated as an important contribution to Rotary's international service work.
To prove the value of the rally on these terms, Rotary cited the Nigerian delegate who reported that the spirit of the gathering had restored her rapidly dwindling faith in the possibility of cooperation between nations of different colours and creeds. 3 By celebrating this renewed faith as a significant outcome, and by framing the international
and exchanges that took place within the realms of medicine and public
health between the colonial administration (particularly its medical
department) and the British missions of Livingstonia, Blantyre and the
Universities’ Mission to Central Africa (UMCA). 5
In his assessment of the early colonial medical service in
Malawi, Colin Baker presents a generally sympathetic account of an
Photographic encounters between Dutch and Indonesian royals
visiting her court in the Netherlands. With the notable exception of the Mangkunegaran, the other royal houses of Central Java followed a similar pattern of preferring gift exchanges and delegations of their family members to personal audiences with the Dutch monarch. In fact, as I have discussed elsewhere, most of the Indigenous kings and princes of the Indies sent proxies from their households to honour the queen at her court rather than attend themselves.
Wilhelmina's famed disinclination to tour her colonies was
around celebrations of the monarchy. The queen's subjects in the Netherlands and its overseas possessions – European commoners and Indigenous royals, commercial and amateur photographers, Dutch and Indonesian spectators and participants at royal festivals – were all figured in relation to the monarchy whenever they looked at, collected, made or exchanged photographs of their observance of royal milestones. In the process, they articulated what it meant to be a subject of an imperial, European, female king who presided over discontiguous territories and diverse peoples
understanding’, he wrote, ‘that contribution can only be made by individual citizens’. 51 This emphasis on ‘ordinary’ individuals also echoed principles of cultural diplomacy endorsed by the British state in the decades after the Second World War. At an international level, efforts to improve nations’ reputations overseas increasingly emphasised cultural exchange and interaction over more traditional methods of propaganda. 52 In Britain, an increasing number of state-funded organisations and projects – most notably the British Council, established in 1934 – sought forms of
, conversion to Islam and encounters with the Dutch. Their textiles, manuscripts, literature and dramatic arts exemplify the syncretic religious and cultural traditions that the royal houses of Central Java share with other South-east Asian courts. Their encounters with Europe, and particularly with Dutch colonists, are evident in the assimilation of Western costume into rulers’ formal dress, the adoption of photography in their courts, and the rich record of gift and letter exchanges between European and Indigenous royal houses.