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The development of the Indo-Pakistani borderlands
Lucy P. Chester

-Attari checkpoint that is the sole border crossing between the two countries. 6 The Indo-Pakistani borderland displays many characteristics of an ‘alienated borderland’: 7 it is militarized, border-crossing traffic is rigidly controlled, and legal cross-boundary exchange is extremely limited. In other ways, however, it does not fit this model. During times of peace, there is a great deal of illegal cross

in Borders and conflict in South Asia
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‘No such deeds’: responsibility and remembrance
Lucy P. Chester

the violence in Punjab. All of them preferred to rely on a ‘hostage’ approach to the problem of minority security, assuming that the existence of large minorities in each country would guarantee the safety of minorities across the line. They repeatedly refused to implement plans for an orderly exchange of populations, even as a temporary measure. The result was an unplanned, chaotic and bloody

in Borders and conflict in South Asia
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Michael D. Leigh

prices, low wages, declining foreign exchange rates, floods in September 2002 and the cyclone Nargis in May 2008 have compounded Myanmar’s economic, social and political woes. 11 Democracy (or the lack of it) is the most potent issue in modern Myanmar. Many Burmans and Western liberals regard democratisation as the prerequisite for development. Others suspect that ‘democracy’ is a codeword for ‘Westernisation’ which preoccupies political elites. Ordinary Burmans, they say, are more concerned with rice prices, health

in Conflict, politics and proselytism
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Michael D. Leigh

prices and agricultural land sales were controlled centrally. This rigid command economy (euphemistically known as the ‘Burmese Way to Socialism’) caused catastrophic increases in agricultural prices and endemic shortages of consumer goods, and created a flourishing black market. Production declined, foreign exchange dried up, workers were forced to work extra hours without pay and students had to do ‘voluntary’ service. 4 Rev. Edward Bishop kept a diary in 1964 as Burma crumpled under military rule. His account has the

in Conflict, politics and proselytism
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Michael D. Leigh

A new era dawned in 1945. Letters exchanged between missionaries in Mandalay and Secretaries in London became more circumspect and less frequent. Unrecorded telephone conversations replaced the gossipy handwritten notes of colonial times. Although spontaneity made a brief comeback during the 1960s, the tone of missionary discour se changed forever. For the first time too, authentic Burmese voices can be heard speaking from dusty records in the Myanmar National Archives. 1 The war had exploded myths of imperial

in Conflict, politics and proselytism
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Michael D. Leigh

group of Burmese and Karen Christians who had courageously met under the pseudonym of ‘YMCA’ throughout the occupation. He learned that the Japanese had tortured and killed his old friend, Maung Ba Pyon. 27 When Japanese and BIA forces entered Monywa in May 1942, Daw Chit May and forty other Methodists escaped to the village of Lezin. Rev. Pai Bwin returned to his home in Hmangyo and Daw Ngwe Wint, the Bible Woman, opened a school in another village. 28 The Monywa Methodist Church was used as a Japanese telephone exchange

in Conflict, politics and proselytism
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Michael D. Leigh

Exchange-rate fluctuations and the unreliability of government funding caused yet more friction. 45 Building grants from the Burma Government were forfeited if they could not be match-funded by the Committee in London. Government grants were sometimes withdrawn without explanation leaving buildings half-finished. Sometimes grants were awarded at the last minute, prompting desperate scrambles for matched funding. Once started, construction projects had to be completed quickly or the grants would be lost. The Missionary Committee

in Conflict, politics and proselytism
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Michael D. Leigh

In 1942 Chapman had dreamed of the day when the missionaries would return to find ‘a little Church pure as gold and tested in the fire’. 1 When Holden attended a Sunday service in Klaipo’s house in Mahazayabon in April 1945 he discovered that the little Church had certainly been tested in fire, but it had survived. The Methodists had met weekly to pray and exchange gossip. Rev. U Po Tun had married Po Chain’s widow, Harada, the Japanese photographer had been very helpful and eight members of U Tun Maung

in Conflict, politics and proselytism