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Kent Fedorowich

free-passage scheme for ex-servicemen and women which operated between 1919 and 1922 under the auspices of the Oversea Settlement Committee (OSC), established in January 1919 and itself a creation of wartime imperial co-operation. This chapter is concerned, first, to explore and explain the origins of the scheme within the ideological and political context analysed in the previous chapter by Keith Williams; and

in Emigrants and empire
British settlement in the dominions between the wars

Professor Drummond's two pioneering studies, British Economic Policy and the Empire 1919-1939, 1972, and Imperial Economic Policy 1917-1939, 1974, helped to revive interest in Empire migration and other aspects of inter-war imperial economic history. This book concentrates upon the attempts to promote state-assisted migration in the post-First World War period particularly associated with the Empire Settlement Act of 1922. It examines the background to these new emigration experiments, the development of plans for both individual and family migration, as well as the specific schemes for the settlement of ex-servicemen and of women. Varying degrees of encouragement, acquiescence and resistance with which they were received in the dominions, are discussed. After the First World War there was a striking reorientation of state policy on emigration from the United Kingdom. A state-assisted emigration scheme for ex-servicemen and ex-servicewomen, operating from 1919 to 1922, was followed by an Empire Settlement Act, passed in 1922. This made significant British state funding available for assisted emigration and overseas land settlement in British Empire countries. Foremost amongst the achievements of the high-minded imperial projects was the free-passage scheme for ex-servicemen and women which operated between 1919 and 1922 under the auspices of the Oversea Settlement Committee. Cheap passages were considered as one of the prime factors in stimulating the flow of migration, particularly in the case of single women. The research represented here makes a significant contribution to the social histories of these states as well as of the United Kingdom.

The politics of Empire settlement, 1900–1922
Keith Williams

dominion governments was agreed by the Cabinet and announced in April 1919. In the transition from the statist reports of the war period to state supervision and finance of emigration after the war, the importance of the ex-servicemen’s free-passage scheme is manifest. However, the scheme was one of emigration rather than overseas land settlement. Moreover, from the British perspective the financial outlay

in Emigrants and empire
Marjory Harper

to a phenomenon which it regarded as a means of side-stepping domestic unemployment and aggravating labour problems overseas. The Australian free-passage scheme was condemned in February 1923 as simply a means of bringing out agricultural strike-breakers and soldiers, and later that year – in the light of a recruitment visit by Australian politicians – would-be emigrants were warned of serious unemployment in Australia, warnings which were reiterated in subsequent years. 33 Intending emigrants to New Zealand were similarly

in Emigration from Scotland between the wars
Migration in the last gasp of empire
Kathleen Paul

-operated with Australia so that although technically open to all, the Australian Free Passage scheme would in reality be available only to ‘white British servicemen’. 21 Southern Rhodesia, meanwhile, made plain to UK officials that it sought migrants who could help ‘build up a large white population’, while Canada sought migrants who would augment the nation’s ‘fundamental character’. 22 The Dominions refused

in British culture and the end of empire
Marjory Harper

out to join relatives, while twenty Scottish women who in 1923 sailed from London to New Zealand in a party of thirty-eight domestics under the free-passage scheme were confident not only of guaranteed employment but of meeting ‘plenty of their own folk over there’. 89 Also mindful of the importance of the personal touch was a group of Scottish businessmen in Winnipeg who, in the same year, formed the Caledonian Society to encourage Scottish farmers to settle in western Canada, not by supplanting the work of the migration

in Emigration from Scotland between the wars