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British art at the Armistice
Michael Walsh

years. Ideally, art would reconstruct the memory of the war for a future society that would be the beneficiary of that war, and lead it confidently to a cultural sanity that could only have been brought about by the baptism of fire that was the war itself. Though it was as yet unclear how this was to be done, and what this investment might result in, it was certain that this was no time to demobilise the artists of the nation. Whether they were creating historical records of events, warning future generations, consoling those who were bereaved or highlighting the

in The silent morning
Rosemary O’Day

by divers sundry old authentic histories and chronicles it is manifestly declared and expressed that this realm of England is an empire, and so hath been accepted in the world, governed by one supreme head and king having the dignity and royal estate of the imperial crown of the same.9 This alternative historiography of the Reformation was as potent for future generations, in its way, as was that of the ‘religious’ reformers. At the time, events suggested that it would win the day. Henry successfully imposed his interpretation of relations 15 4035 The debate

in The Debate on the English Reformation
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Nostalgia, memory and the empire of things
Antoinette Burton

imperial memory, and in the end, like many memsahibs before 1947, they remain guarantors of empire’s reproduction for future generations. And yet, if Flora and Eden are intended as evidence of the liberalism of empire, they succeed in revealing the limitations of political critique in the heroic mode, even and especially when women get to be the heroes. 37 For to imagine that Eden wished the end of

in British culture and the end of empire
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Testimonial knowledge as ongoing memory transmission
Audrey Rousseau

this day, of such a system of abuse. This chapter thus shows that testimonies of a difficult past not only contribute to reflections on sustained social inequalities, but enable a form of political accountability by reconstructing narratives and preserving them, as archival presences, for future generations. 17 Conceptualising memory transmission through ‘testimonial knowledge’ Because memory is both ‘recognised and reconstructed’, 18

in Legacies of the Magdalen Laundries
Defending Cold War Canada
Katie Pickles

its institutions. For all that postwar Canadian conservatism more generally was descended from such politics, it was nevertheless pragmatic and quick in down-playing the British connection. On the contrary, the IODE consistently expressed clear organic sentiments, emphasizing the importance of training future generations in its construction of Canadian identity. In the Cold War it was against the

in Female imperialism and national identity
Leonie Hannan

A short final chapter which states the case for women’s mass participation in cultures of knowledge and considers longer term change over time. Having established that many more women participated in the world of ideas, it is proposed that these women represent a seedbed of change for future generations of intellectually aspiring women.

in Women of letters
Living spirituality

Between 1598 and 1800, an estimated 3, 271 Catholic women left England to enter convents on the Continent. This study focuses more particularly upon those who became Benedictines in the seventeenth century, choosing exile in order to pursue their vocation for an enclosed life. Through the study of a wide variety of original manuscripts, including chronicles, death notices, clerical instructions, texts of spiritual guidance, but also the nuns’ own collections of notes, this book highlights the tensions between the contemplative ideal and the nuns’ personal experiences. Its first four chapters adopt a traditional historical approach to illustrate the tensions between theory and practice in the ideal of being dead to the world. They offer a prosopographical study of Benedictine convents in exile, and show how those houses were both cut-off and enclosed yet very much in touch with the religious and political developments at home. The next fur chapters propose a different point of entry into the history of nuns, with a study of emotions and the senses in the cloister, delving into the textual analysis of the nuns’ personal and communal documents to explore aspect of a lived spirituality, when the body, which so often hindered the spirit, at times enabled spiritual experience.

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The Algerian war and the ‘emancipation’ of Muslim women, 1954–62
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In May 1958, and four years into the Algerian War of Independence, a revolt again appropriated the revolutionary and republican symbolism of the French Revolution by seizing power through a Committee of Public Safety. This book explores why a repressive colonial system that had for over a century maintained the material and intellectual backwardness of Algerian women now turned to an extensive programme of 'emancipation'. After a brief background sketch of the situation of Algerian women during the post-war decade, it discusses the various factors contributed to the emergence of the first significant women's organisations in the main urban centres. It was only after the outbreak of the rebellion in 1954 and the arrival of many hundreds of wives of army officers that the model of female interventionism became dramatically activated. The French military intervention in Algeria during 1954-1962 derived its force from the Orientalist current in European colonialism and also seemed to foreshadow the revival of global Islamophobia after 1979 and the eventual moves to 'liberate' Muslim societies by US-led neo-imperialism in Afghanistan and Iraq. For the women of Bordj Okhriss, as throughout Algeria, the French army represented a dangerous and powerful force associated with mass destruction, brutality and rape. The central contradiction facing the mobile socio-medical teams teams was how to gain the trust of Algerian women and to bring them social progress and emancipation when they themselves were part of an army that had destroyed their villages and driven them into refugee camps.

Space, power and governance in mid-twentieth century British cities

Reconstructing modernity assesses the character of approaches to rebuilding British cities during the decades after the Second World War. It explores the strategies of spatial governance that sought to restructure society and looks at the cast of characters who shaped these processes. It challenges traditional views of urban modernism as moderate and humanist, shedding new light on the importance of the immediate post-war for the trajectory of urban renewal in the twentieth century. The book shows how local corporations and town planners in Manchester and Hull attempted to create order and functionality through the remaking of their decrepit Victorian cities. It looks at the motivations of national and local governments in the post-war rebuilding process and explores why and how they attempted the schemes they did. What emerges is a picture of local corporations, planners and city engineers as radical reshapers of the urban environment, not through the production of grand examples of architectural modernism, but in mundane attempts to zone cities, produce greener housing estates, control advertising or regulate air quality. Their ambition to control and shape the space of their cities was an attempt to produce urban environments that might be both more orderly and functional, but also held the potential to shape society.

A conceptual history 1200–1900

This collection explores how concepts of intellectual or learning disability evolved from a range of influences, gradually developing from earlier and decidedly distinct concepts, including ‘idiocy’ and ‘folly’, which were themselves generated by very specific social and intellectual environments. With essays extending across legal, educational, literary, religious, philosophical, and psychiatric histories, this collection maintains a rigorous distinction between historical and contemporary concepts in demonstrating how intellectual disability and related notions were products of the prevailing social, cultural, and intellectual environments in which they took form, and themselves performed important functions within these environments. Focusing on British and European material from the middle ages to the late nineteenth century, this collection asks ‘How and why did these concepts form?’ ‘How did they connect with one another?’ and ‘What historical circumstances contributed to building these connections?’ While the emphasis is on conceptual history or a history of ideas, these essays also address the consequences of these defining forces for the people who found themselves enclosed by the shifting definitional field.