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Romance and the cash nexus at the Great Exhibition

head of the upper-class little girl on the join. This also accounts for the slight variation of tone between the two halves of the plate, the area to the left of this line being more heavily hatched than the area to the right. A section of one of the organs, of which there were two positioned at the east and west ends of the building, is just visible and confirms that we are looking down the length of the building. The absence of any further objects in the scene makes it impossible to locate the encounter more precisely. Since the shilling visitors were newcomers to

in Novelty fair

5 Rewriting maternal femininity in Mary Kelly’s Post-Partum Document ‘[L]ittle girls are told their future is caring for people … ’ Sheila Rowbotham in Nightcleaners (1975)1 Post-Partum Document is an archive of objects that represent the pleasures Kelly’s maternal figure takes in caring for her child: infant clothing; soiled nappies; scribbled drawings; words, dialogues, and stories; letters and typesetting materials; pieces of blankets; and small gifts the child found in nature. These objects are marked by imminent losses, however, making the mother

in Addressing the other woman

‘Clubs that don’t exist anymore’ ‘Clubs that don’t exist anymore’ 129 6 Archive: The Carter/Johnson Leather Library; Viola Johnson’s pin sash An illustration in the 1955 Girl Scout Handbook: Intermediate Program depicts two teenage girls examining a sash filled with badges (figure 6.1). The girl wearing the sash looks down, her head bowed as she speaks to her companion. Lifting the sash away from her body with her right hand, she points with Illustration from the Girl Scout Handbook: Intermediate Program, © 1953/1955 by Girl Scouts of the United States

in Bound together
Factory landscapes, leisure and the model employee

’101 suggest that it was the highlight of the famous Shredded Wheat visitor experience and may have also been reserved for the management. The Cadbury, Rowntree and NCR factories all had segregated spaces where gender-specific activities were offered. The Girls’ Grounds at Cadbury, part pleasure garden and part recreation ground included tennis courts for the women, and swings and the ‘giant stride’ for the younger girls. The giant stride was common in parks in the late nineteenth century. It looked like a maypole but each child would run around it hanging on to a

in The factory in a garden
The power of the garden image

Harvester Milwaukee Works playground, Wisconsin, 1912. Here employees could listen to the band, play tennis or baseball, or relax on the grass. 148 The factory in a garden 6.3  Cadbury advertisement, early 1930s. Employees dressed for hygiene in the factory look down over the Men’s Recreation Ground from the roof of the Girls’ Grounds pavilion. factory souvenir guides, postcards and packaging and, in the case of the NCR Company, on their letterhead. The reality of the factory with its landscape and planting also became an advertisement as the best view was presented

in The factory in a garden
Profits or perks?

. Dolly Green, who started work at the Cadbury factory aged 14 in 1937, described how she would go back to work refreshed after her lunchtime breaks relaxing in the Girls’ Grounds. ‘Oh yes, we used to go and sit by the pond … it was nice, it was quite pleasant that was.’2 A worker at the Spirella Corset factory in Letchworth Garden City who took pleasure in the natural beauty of her workplace expressed similar feelings.3 But did most employees, as the ‘Welfare Song’ suggested, resent the ‘soft power’ of welfare and would they have preferred costs of landscaping

in The factory in a garden
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, and whose lives I’d love to know more about. His father’s cousin Emma (sister of Julie, the mother of Marcel who died in the French Resistance) was single, and lived with her widowed sister, and her sister-in-law in her later years. It was with them that my cousin Marlyse lived, in France, as a young girl in the 1930s. Emma is on the right in this photograph from 1953 (and I am in front, with Julie’s hand on my shoulder). More mysterious, and a generation earlier, is Emma’s aunt Minette Levy (1845–1919), my father’s great-aunt, oldest of nine siblings, whose grave I

in Austerity baby

pervert,’ and displaces and mollifies feminism’s radical effects.6 Solanas is a crucial iteration of the feministas-lesbian, as she became a vehicle, in Hesford’s words, ‘through which the emotive force of the attack on Women’s Liberation is generated.’7 A fantasy of heteropatriarchy, the ‘feminist-as-lesbian’ displaces the aggressions moving through feminist’s demands for change.8 Solanas performed this symbolic work alone, before, as Avital Ronell reminds us, the appearance of the ‘guerilla girls, Lesbian Avengers, Queer Nation,’ Valerie Solanas’s SCUM Manifesto and

in Addressing the other woman

between 1859 and 1885, a place for ladies to promenade away from male attention was made in the garden of the Great Northern 72 The factory in a garden Hotel in Peterborough,35 and a ‘sitting room for ladies’ was built beside the main entrance to Fountain Gardens in Paisley, Scotland (1868).36 The NCR in Dayton, Ohio was one such company with significant landscaping, where the female workforce was promoted as respectable (‘the only factory in town in which the girls are known to be ladies’),37 although according to Daniel Nelson, historians have tended to exaggerate

in The factory in a garden
J.W.M. Hichberger

female sexuality saw an unbridgeable gulf between the ‘honest woman’ and the whore. Since the financial imperative of prostitution for women on low wages was often discounted, commentators chose to believe that women ‘fell’ into the life only after being seduced. The profile of the typical prostitute constructed by contemporary authorities was a ‘virtuous’ serving maid or farm girl led from the path of

in Images of the army