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by the disordered world, and her memory of it was only visual. Ignorance was no protection here; indeed, it multiplied the alarming impact. She gave no explanation or interpretation. What the little girl saw was incomprehensible. Pulverised plaster coated everything as it slowly fell to earth. Henri Girardin, near Brest, said that ‘the entire street was completely covered in dust’. It carpeted the ground and hung in the air, ghostly and opaque, ‘like a fog’, said Christian de la Bachellerie (Boulogne-Billancourt). Visibility was poor because of dust and acrid smoke

in French children under the Allied bombs, 1940–45

on the siren or on another warning, but in Hellemmes Josette Dutilleul triggered the alert for her family: I have very, very good hearing. So I’d hear the plans from far, far, far away, and as soon as I heard them, I’d get dressed. The night before, I’d lay out my clothes in order on my chair […] and as soon as my mother heard me get up, she’d get up; she’d say, ‘that’s it, if Josette’s heard the planes, we have to go’. The girl was the family’s siren, her underlying anxiety evident in this hypervigilant behaviour. Not every family obeyed the municipal siren

in French children under the Allied bombs, 1940–45

, his reading skills were not well enough developed to understand what adult newspapers said about bombing. Madame Th and Yvette Chapalain were both adolescent girls when bombed; neither remembers having been particularly interested in outside affairs. ‘We weren’t interested in politics’, said Madame Th of her group of schoolfriends. Nor was she permitted to listen to the radio. Anything she knew about the war came via her father, thus with parental censorship. Yvette was wrapped up in her own life: ‘I went to school, I had my schoolwork, yes, for me that was it

in French children under the Allied bombs, 1940–45

sums ranging from a few francs to thousands. Donations in Reichsmarks were sent from French prisoners of war, their contributions boosted by the favourable exchange rate. Jeannine Coppin wrote that her little girls’ magazine offered a toy doll to every reader who had been bombed out. Bombing brought some kind of unity to a fragmented nation through acts of solidarity that were separate from the acts of solidarity orchestrated by Vichy or politically motivated groups like the COSI. The charitable impulse was widespread; common ground was emphasised by the capricious

in French children under the Allied bombs, 1940–45
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of imagining a range of scenarios, did not always seem preoccupied with parents’ safety, and in the narratives were focused on themselves. Édith Denhez and her sister Claire had been left alone; she does not recall fearing for her mother, but simply being frightened. The sisters tried to follow the instructions they had been given: ‘We heard the planes diving, and whistling, whistling, so we ran to our neighbour’s house […]. But that neighbour wasn’t at home! We were screaming out in the street, distraught.’ Two little girls, incapable of finding their own way to

in French children under the Allied bombs, 1940–45
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A conclusion

behaviours resulting from bombing; perhaps women remembered them more clearly, or admitted to past ‘weakness’ more openly. But not only girls experienced behavioural responses. Max Potter, for example, mentioned being afraid to sleep alone in his bed as a teenager. Men’s narration was more likely to stall when describing fear. Michel Jean-Bart and Pierre Haigneré both became distressed in the interview when recounting the moment of bombing. Robert Belleuvre was upset when speaking of his friends’ deaths on their way to the cinema in Boulogne-Billancourt and Bernard Bauwens

in French children under the Allied bombs, 1940–45
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Ian McEwan’s The Children Act and the limits of the legal practices in Menke’s ‘Law and violence’

of human interaction. McEwan attributes this idea to Fiona, as she formulates her judgment on the case of the disputed education of the Charedi girls in the opening chapter of the book. But the phrase has its origin in the judgment on a similar case by Sir James Munby, on which McEwan draws, and Munby is himself quoting another judgment by Lord Hoffmann.18 McEwan thus follows senior judges in seeing legal pronouncements as embedded in the social contexts in which they are made.19 Judgments are always part of the wider social processes through which behavior is

in Law and violence
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; that is, they are private people and not the leading lights of a political, cultural or social public scene, and are drawn from the mass of invisible actors whose cumulative actions and decisions create social change. They may share external characteristics, living, for example, in the same locality, attending the same school or being little girls or adolescent boys. Yet they are, at the core, individual subjectivities, whose internal characteristics are unique. I previously cited Jean-François Murraciole’s comment that the Allied bombing was a ‘black hole’ in

in French children under the Allied bombs, 1940–45
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Lead essay in which she asserts her right to remain silent that “the girl knows what the rules are well enough” (The Broken Jug, 43). In German, he uses a peculiar trope: “Die Jungfer weiß, wo unsre Zäume hängen,” “the girl knows where our bridles hang.” Vinculum iuris, the bridle, fetter, or tie of law, is the Roman legal term for the obligation “by which we are reduced to the necessity of paying something in compliance with the laws of our state.”66 This necessity incumbent upon one side corresponds to the legal claim to the payment the other side can assert. It

in Law and violence
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sixteenth arrondissement of Paris; her memories tell the story of a little disabled girl, whose polio had left her less able physically to manage the demands of life under the bombs. From the industrial parts of the town, with families working in laundry or for Renault, were Robert Belleuvre and Bernard Bauwens, among others. These two men spoke with great emotion of the heavy air raids they underwent as young teenagers; both were affiliated to youth groups that forced them to contribute their services in the aftermath of an air raid, Robert standing as a guard of honour

in French children under the Allied bombs, 1940–45