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  • Manchester Studies in Imperialism x
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Opera, operetta and ballet

Puccini’s Madame Butterfly (1904), the devoted Cho-Cho San commits hara-kiri when abandoned by the American Lieutenant Pinkerton; and in Delibes’s Lakmé (1883), the Indian girl Lakmé poisons herself when the English officer Gerald, whom she loves, returns to his army duties. In Lehar’s Land of Smiles (1928), the Chinese Prime Minister Prince Sou Chong is left brokenhearted when his Viennese

in Imperialism and music

assertion of masculinity’. 2 The British Empire, however, had some use for girls. In their discussion of the Englishwoman, 3 Jane Mackay and Pat Thome begin with the proposition that nationality…played a more significant role in the redefinition of masculinity as it emerged in the later nineteenth century than in that of femininity’, but add this is not

in Imperialism and juvenile literature
Single female migration and the Empire Settlement Act, 1922–1930

direct state financial aid to migration in general, it recognised ‘special grounds for granting State aid to the emigration of women, and for supplementing the existing provision for the emigration of juveniles, more particularly of girls, by direct Government grants’. 6 Nineteenth-century British rhetoric on female migration had stressed the need to redress the imbalance of the sexes between the United

in Emigrants and empire
Race and gender in the chocolate factory

in the early 1920s, Miss Lister, who joined the firm in May 1877, recalled between fifty and sixty ‘girls’ at the Tanner’s Moat site in these early years. They performed the labour-intensive tasks of sorting, decorating and packing confectionery. Another pensioner, Mrs Beesley, started work at the factory aged twenty in November 1877. She described how girls of fourteen earned 3s 6p a week for sixty

in Chocolate, women and empire
Britain 1876–1953

Music played a major role in the life of a global ideological phenomenon like the British Empire. This book demonstrates that music has to be recognised as one of the central characteristics of the cultural imperialism of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. It begins with an account of the imperial music of Sir Edward Elgar and Sir Arthur Sullivan and the establishing of an imperial musical idiom. The book discusses the music composed for or utilized by official occasions: coronations, jubilees, exhibitions, tattoos, Armistice Day and Empire Day. Community singing was also introduced at the Aldershot Military Tattoo in 1927, sponsored by the Daily Express. The book examines the imperial content of a range of musical forms: operetta and ballet, films, music hall songs, ballads, hymns and marches. In one of the scenes depicting ballet, Indian dancing girls are ordered to reveal the riches of the land and the Ballet of Jewels. There were two staples of song in the second half of the nineteenth century: the drawing-room ballad and the music-hall song. Sir Henry Coward was Britain's leading chorus-master, and his 1911 musical world tour with Sheffield choir was the high point of his career. The book concludes with a discussion of practitioners of imperial music: the divas Emma Albani, Nellie Melba and Clara Butt, and the baritone Peter Dawson.

Popular culture is invariably a vehicle for the dominant ideas of its age. Never was this truer than in the late-nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, when it reflected the nationalist and imperialist ideologies current throughout Europe. It both reflects popular attitudes, ideas and preconceptions and it generates support for selected views and opinions. This book examines the various media through which nationalist ideas were conveyed in late-Victorian and Edwardian times: in the theatre, "ethnic" shows, juvenile literature, education and the iconography of popular art. It seeks to examine in detail the articulation and diffusion of imperialism in the field of juvenile literature by stressing its pervasiveness across boundaries of class, nation and gender. It analyses the production, distribution and marketing of imperially-charged juvenile fiction, stressing the significance of the Victorians' discovery of adolescence, technological advance and educational reforms as the context of the great expansion of such literature. An overview of the phenomenon of Robinson Crusoe follows, tracing the process of its transformation into a classic text of imperialism and imperial masculinity for boys. The imperial commitment took to the air in the form of the heroic airmen of inter-war fiction. The book highlights that athleticism, imperialism and militarism become enmeshed at the public schools. It also explores the promotion of imperialism and imperialist role models in fiction for girls, particularly Girl Guide stories.

Company determinations concerning its attitudes towards Indian females regarding their interaction with Europeans. As already discussed, between 1813 and 1854, colonial education of Indian girls, although differentiated by gender, was placed at the edges of other centres newly built by new forms of colonial intervention. Such centres included the CMS proselytising agenda in Bengal, and the very different

in Learning femininity in colonial India, 1820–1932
A social and cultural history

Chocolate remains a mythic product, a symbol both of luxury and of a fantasy world of exoticism, yet also (for many) a workaday requirement providing energy and nutrition. This book concentrates on three key stages of chocolate production in the British empire: growing cocoa beans, manufacturing chocolate from these beans, and the marketing of chocolate products. It begins with the romantic construction of chocolate, redresses the gender imbalance of many existing Rowntree histories and values women's own interpretations of their working lives. The analysis of advertising establishes connections and tensions between the worlds of production and consumption, with an attention to gender and class, and to cultural characteristics. The book tackles imperial histories of chocolate and how British firms, including Rowntree, constructed their own romantic narratives of the 'discovery' and development of chocolate production. It focuses on Nigerian women farmers who have always been active agents in cocoa production, despite having to struggle against the often intersecting structures and ideologies of colonialism, capitalism and patriarchy. The book explores the ways in which Rowntree created and reflected particular understandings of the historic city of York and of empire, through media such as their in-house journal, 'Cocoa Works Magazine'. It provides the oral histories of women factory workers, including that of a Chinese girl, and their experiences of gendered and raced labour in chocolate manufacture.

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National identity in The Wild Irish Girl and Sybil

This chapter offers a comparison of two novels that share a surprising number of features, and which both have strong links with aesthetic theory. The first is The Wild Irish Girl: A National Tale, by Lady Morgan (1776–1859), which was first published in 1806 and is the most self-consciously picturesque novel ever written. The second is Sybil, or the Two Nations by

in Cultural identities and the aesthetics of Britishness

Pre-British India possessed vibrant, diverse and sometimes contested and exclusive female learning spaces for women that had evolved in culturally sympathetic ways over many centuries. In the Vedic age, but before 1,000 BCE , both girls and boys underwent upanayana (religious initiation), which entitled them to study Vedic texts. For elites in pre-Mughal times, in the early medieval period

in Learning femininity in colonial India, 1820–1932