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This book seeks to review the state of political issues early in the twenty-first century, when New Labour is in its second term of office. As part of the updating process it became necessary to choose which political issues are important. The book includes the main issues which appear in current Advanced Level Politics syllabuses. In the case of Edexcel, which offers a specific political issues option in its A2 specification, all the specified issues have been included. The book deals with the process of constitutional and political change which are issues in themselves. It also includes material on constitutional reform (incorporating the recent development of human rights in Britain), and devolution. The book includes the global recession and other recent political developments and looks at the important issues in British politics since 1945. It examines the key issues of British politics today: economic policy, the Welfare State, law and order, environment policy, Northern Ireland, issues concerning women, European integration and the European Union, and the impact of the European Union on Britain. The book also deals with the European Union and Britain's relationship to it. Finally, it must be emphasised that Britain's relationship to the European Union is in itself a political issue which has fundamentally changed the party system.

Neoliberal crisis, neoliberal solutions

Once held up as a 'poster child' for untrammeled capitalist globalisation, the Irish Republic has more recently come to represent a cautionary tale for those tempted to tread the same neoliberal path. The crash in the world economy had especially grave repercussions for Ireland, and a series of austerity measures has seen the country endure the most substantial 'adjustment' ever experienced in a developed society during peacetime. This book delineates the reactionary course that Ireland has followed since the ignominious demise of the Celtic Tiger. It argues that the forces of neoliberalism have employed the economic crisis they caused to advance policies that are in their own narrow interests, and that the host of regressive measures imposed since the onset of global recession has fundamentally restructured Irish society. The book discusses the mechanisms by which finance in Ireland sustains and reproduces itself, in particular how it was able to protect itself during the 2008 crisis. Property was at the centre of the second phase of the Celtic Tiger boom after US investment in manufacturing began to decline, leading to the Irish economic crash. The years since the onset of the recession in Ireland in 2008 have been characterised not by passivity and quietism but by extreme violence. In December 2009 as part of the first wave of austerity, the Community Development Project was informed that the Department of Community, Rural and Gaeltacht Affairs proposed not to continue funding the project beyond the end of 2009.

Steven Griggs
and
David Howarth

into question, not least by the new politics of climate change and new alliances of local residents and environmental protesters, the onset of peak oil and global recession. As one leading cultural critic puts it, the airport is at once a place, a system, a cultural artefact, that brings us face-toface with the advantages as well as the frustrations of modernity. The sprawling hybrid nature of the subject challenges easy assumptions. Its history has been a recurrent cycle of anticipation and disappointment, success and failure, innovation and obsolescence. (Gordon

in The politics of airport expansion in the United Kingdom
Inter-regionalism in a new era
Julie Gilson

participation by key actors. Following a start full of co-operative pledges, then, ASEM delivered a number of modest initiatives, not least providing a stable and regular forum for region-to-region dialogue. However, the second decade of its existence coincided with a stagnation in relations, as global recession, institutional weakness and the continued rise of China required global and national responses and did not correspond to particular regional – or inter-regional – agendas. The economic reality – that in 2012 ASEM states accounted for 57.2 per cent of total global

in The European Union in the Asia-Pacific
Abstract only
Carlos Solar
and
Gregory Weeks

rare. Global recession and expenditure Countries need considerable economic resources to maintain a steady pathway to industrialisation. Budgets for social and military spending are both equally reliant on the prospect of short- and medium-term economic growth. Yet, the question here is whether countries prefer (or not) to finance civil areas of economic and human development over military expenditure. In his research on Latin American countries, Perlo-Freeman ( 2011 ) found no statistical evidence that military

in Governing the military
Lan Loader

liberal-left missing an opportunity – one opened up by the 2008 financial crash and the ensuing global recession – to offer an alternative reading of the intersection between neoliberal excess and the turn to incarceration.26 There is a conventional account of the relationship between recession, crime and punishment which would predict, in the wake of the financial crisis, a further tightening of the penal screw. The claim here is that punitive policies have over the last decade coincided with falling levels of volume crime; so imagine how much more severe things will

in Incarceration and human rights
Paving the path for a new identity
Christine Agius

per cent of income. These proposals were due to come into force in 1983 but were never implemented because the Social Democratic Party returned to government in 1982 (discussed later in this chapter) (Swank, 1999 : 106). The shift to a bourgeois government in Sweden coincided with domestic developments and the broader international turn towards neoliberalism. The global recession of the late 1970s–early 1980s

in The social construction of Swedish neutrality
Marta Kempny

same kinds of job they had in 2008 (mostly blue-collar jobs with some few exceptions, such as a call centre agent, interpreter, clerical assistant and pharmacist). Polish migrants have a very high level of economic activity as a group but structural and economic factors (including the global recession from 2008 and levels of English-language fluency) have prevented many from progressing to better jobs than those they were able to obtain initially. 7 Longitudinal studies allow social scientists to understand life development and social change

in Immigrants as outsiders in the two Irelands
Abstract only
Death by a thousand cuts?
Ashley Lavelle

slump. Ryner makes a similar point, noting the derisory performance of social democrats at the 2009 European elections, including the humbling of the German SPD – so often a barometer of the health of social democracy because of its size and strategic importance in Europe’s most populous country and biggest economy – which scored its worst result since the Second World War. On the Postface: death by a thousand cuts? 277 other hand, as Schmidt details in Chapter 8 on Germany, the cycle of austerity followed by electoral crisis preceded the global recession in the case

in European social democracy during the global economic crisis
Sandra Buchanan

public sector (in terms of employment and public expenditure), traditional manufacturing industries coming under pressure from low-cost producers in Eastern Europe and Asia and a heavy reliance on manual and lower skilled employment, means there is still a long way to go. Northern Ireland, like the Republic, has also suffered from the impact of the global recession and debt

in Transforming conflict through social and economic development