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  • Manchester History of Medicine x
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Perspectives on audiences and impact

Historians interact with a variety of audiences. In the history of medicine – our focus – audiences include government committees and commissions dealing with ethical issues in biomedicine; journalists asking for historical perspectives on new discoveries as well as abuses and controversies in medicine; curators and visitors at museums; sometimes even medical researchers utilizing historical material. A particularly prominent audience for historians of medicine is in health care, students as well as practitioners. An important aim of the book is to challenge the idea that communication between researchers and their audiences is unidirectional. This is achieved by employing a media theoretical perspective to discuss how historians create audiences for academic knowledge production (‘audiencing’). The theme is opportune not least because the measurement of ‘impact’ is rapidly becoming a policy tool. The book’s 10 chapters explore the history of medicine’s relationships with its audiences, from the early twentieth century to the present. Throughout the authors discuss how historians of medicine and others have interacted with and impacted audiences. Topics include medical education, policy-making, exhibitions and museums, film and television.

This book explores how skilled nursing practice develop to become an essential part of the modern health system. It traces the history and development of nursing practice in Europe and North America. The book explores two broad categories of nursing work: the 'hands-on' clinical work of nurses in hospitals and the work of nurses in public health, which involved health screening, health education and public health crisis management. Until the end of the eighteenth century sick children were, for the most part, cared for at home and, if admitted to hospital, were cared for alongside adults. Around 1900 the baby wards of the children's hospitals had a poor reputation because of their high mortality rates due to poor hygiene, malnutrition and insufficient knowledge of child and infant healthcare . The book relates particular experiences of Australian and New Zealand nurses during World War I, With a focus on 'the life of a consumptive' in early twentieth-century Ireland, it examine the experiences of the sanatorium patient. sanatorium nursing. As sanatoria became a special division of public health, sanatorium nursing developed as a branch of nursing distinct from other branches. An analysis of public health and nursing issues during the cholera epidemic shows the changes in the city's health administration and the nursing system after the epidemic. The nurses' work with schoolchildren, coal miners and migrant workers is also examined against the backdrop of economic, social, political, racial and healthcare forces.

The historian’s dilemmas in a time of health-care reform

knew my argument would centre on the United States’ long history of refusing to adopt universal health care. Even if the ACA continued as planned and was fully implemented, at least 20 million residents of the United States would remain without health coverage (many more if some states refused to expand Medicaid, the health-insurance programme for the poor). No matter the outcome, my analysis would focus on the limited and incremental nature

in Communicating the history of medicine

range of settings from medical schools to sex education films, from exhibitions to debates about health policy. They show that, however difficult it is to define the term ‘audience’, it remains a crucial, flexible, even indispensable term. Many of the chapters acknowledge that the very term ‘audience’ is a problem; well suited to research into performances in designated spaces, but perhaps not so apt for reflecting on the history of

in Communicating the history of medicine

Athletes start the century as normal, healthy citizens, and end up as potentially unhealthy physiological 'freaks', while the general public are increasingly urged to do more exercise and play more sports. This book offers a comprehensive study, and social history, of the development of sports medicine in Britain, as practiced by British doctors and on British athletes in national and international settings. It describes how and why, in Britain, medicine applied to sport became first an area of expertise known as sports medicine, and then a formal medical specialty: Sport and Exercise Medicine. In the late nineteenth century, vigorous exercise was an acceptable, probably necessary, part of the moderate healthy lifestyle for the normal, healthy man. Consequently sports medicine was part and parcel of normal medical treatment, distinguishable only through its location or through its patient history. There was no wide-spread de facto scepticism about the value of vigorous exercise among physicians and scientists. The normality of the young male athlete is reconsidered between 1928 and 1952. At the end of the period, the athlete becomes an abnormal or supernormal human being who demands specialist medical interventions. The formation and work of British Association of Sport and (Exercise) Medicine, the Institute of Sports Medicine, the Sports Council, and the British Olympic Association's Medical Committee is discussed. The book finally discusses fitness. Normal life, war, elite competition gives us an insight into how athletic bodies are conceptualised, and how sports medicine has formed and reformed over a century.

A disrupted digression on productive disorder, disorderly pleasure, allegorical properties and scatter

expectations, realistic and unrealistic. For better or worse, things do not turn out the way we figure. An audience gathers – to enter into history, taste a small morsel of historicity. Small or large, it applauds, bridles, is moved to action – or dozes off or slips away – or never shows up in the first place. How dreary to contemplate ‘process’, ‘audience’, ‘reception’, ‘impact’. We fall into generic modes: demographics

in Communicating the history of medicine
Nursing older people in British hospitals, 1945–80

-driven culture may be a recent phenomenon, poor leadership, especially in the care of older people is not. Both Mark Hayter and I  have warned of the dangers of ‘knee-jerk’ reactions to the report.3 An exploration of the history of older adult care in the United Kingdom can illuminate some of the presenting challenges in caring for this vulnerable group of patients. While the Mid-Staffordshire inquiry was not specifically about the care of older patients, by raising the spectre of poor care among other populations 82 A poverty of leadership of patients, the lack of interest

in Histories of nursing practice
Nurses and ECT in Dutch psychiatry, 1940–2010

6 Beyond the cuckoo’s nest: Nurses and ECT in Dutch psychiatry, 1940–2010 Geertje Boschma1 Introduction This chapter analyses the history of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) from the point of view of nurses in the context of Dutch psychiatry from 1940 to 2010. After a period of dwindling use and much controversy over ECT in the late 1970s and 1980s, its application has increased again in the Netherlands over the last twenty-five years. During this time the general hospital gradually became the dominant environment for ECT whilst nursing obtained a central and

in Histories of nursing practice
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The meaning of food to New Zealand and Australian nurses far from home in World War I, 1915–18

nurses by offering recognisable, yet oddly altered, aspects of daily life, even those that were fashioned from a common cultural stock. Mealtimes, for example, might contain familiar foods yet require different etiquette. Nurses, wrenched from their familiar setting, friends and family, and grappling with the harshness of war and the heavy weight of war work, tried to make sense of their daily lives in their diaries and letters home. A  recurring feature in their writing was food. Recent histories have explained nurses’ experience in this war. Hallett, for example

in Histories of nursing practice
Nursing burned children in the Chicago School fire disaster, 1958

4 ‘Hurting and caring’: Nursing burned children in the Chicago School fire disaster, 1958 Barbara Brodie Introduction This is a narrative history of the injured children, their families and the medical staff, particularly the nurses, who closely cared for them after a devastating school fire in Chicago. The story briefly covers the actual fire and the children’s rescue and their arrival at the local hospital. It closely examines the physical and emotional care given to the young patients and their families as they struggled with the devastating reality of the

in Histories of nursing practice