Several of those who have set out to explain the emergence of Atlantic History as a distinct subject of enquiry have begun by seeking to establish when the concept of an Atlantic World first came into vogue. Those who have done so have found that the concept of an Atlantic Community, if not of an Atlantic World, was first popularized in the aftermath of the Second World War by scholars who considered that the liberal-democratic values that had been gradually enshrined into law by governments on both sides of the Atlantic Ocean from the late
A programme for the teaching of history in the post- national era
Teaching history at American colleges and universities currently undergoes significant changes and transformations. Fundamental questions are raised about how we teach history and what we teach as history. There is the pressure of university administrations and boards of regents to develop online courses which students can take at their own pace. The large survey courses in American and World History are relocated from lecture halls into the virtual world of the internet where students are guided through the material with interactive tools
developing a substantive and methodological cooperation which has been extraordinarily intense and fruitful. 8 Though East German historians also attempted to follow the Marxist lead of their Soviet colleagues, their communication remained more superficial and reluctant than among their western counterparts. 9 In the West, the joint transatlantic effort to confront the historical reasons and consequences of the Nazi dictatorship produced an entirely new subspecialty – German contemporary history. 10 How did this surprising disciplinary innovation that supported the
The attacks of 9/11 constitute one of
those moments in history that divides before and after. They led to a
declaration of a ‘War on Terror’ from George W. Bush, President of the
United States, on 20 September 2001, a call to arms that would be answered
by many European states, the UK included. The threat was understood as an
‘Islamist’ terrorism, a perverse reading of the Muslim faith whose
proponents spanned the world. 1
Soon after the attacks, the United States, with the aid of key allies,
In the twenty-first century, transatlantic relations no longer enjoy the prominence they had in both the foreign policies of the United States and of many Western European countries, as well as in the history of international relations during the second half of the twentieth century. Yet, transatlantic relations remain a focus of study by historians and political scientists, as America and the European Union still are, economically and politically (and, in the American case, militarily), two of the most powerful actors in international
De Jure Belli ac Pacis (Concerning the Law of War and Peace),
1625. However, there were many works written before Grotius and in these
the emphasis on war is even more marked. 62 Each of these works outlined what
the author considered should be the law governing war and made use of
examples from mythology and classical history, as well as from more
recent battles, but by and large their writings reflected the general
The TransAtlantic reconsidered brings together established experts from Atlantic History and Transatlantic Studies – two fields that are closely connected in their historical and disciplinary development as well as with regard to the geographical area of their interest. Questions of methodology and boundaries of periodization tend to separate these research fields. However, in order to understand the Atlantic World and transatlantic relations today, Atlantic History and Transatlantic Studies should be considered together. The scholars represented in this volume have helped to shape, re-shape, and challenge the narrative(s) of the Atlantic World and can thus (re-)evaluate its conceptual basis in view of historiographical developments and contemporary challenges. This volume thus documents and reflects on the changes within Transatlantic Studies during the last decades. New perspectives on research reconceptualize how we think about the Atlantic World. At a time when many political observers perceive a crisis in transatlantic relations, critical evaluation of past narratives and frameworks will provide an academic foundation to move forward.
This book provides a unique perspective on the Allied bombing of France during the Second World War which killed around 57,000 French civilians. Using oral history as well as archival research, it provides an insight into children's wartime lives in which bombing often featured prominently, even though it has slipped out of French collective memory. The book compares three French towns with different experiences of bombing: Boulogne-Billancourt , Brest, and Lille. Divided into three parts dealing with expectations, experiences and explanations of bombing, the book considers the child's view of wartime violence, analysing resilience, understanding and trauma. The first part of the book deals with the time before bombing. It examines how the French prepared for war and preparations made specifically for bombing, showing how state-level and municipal-level preparations. The second part considers the time during bombing and its aftermath. It discusses the experience of being bombed, examining children's practical, sensory and emotional responses. The fascinating and frightening scenes in the immediate aftermath of bombing that made lasting impressions on children, including destruction, chaos and encounters with violent, public death. Changes in status as a result of bombing becoming a sinistre, refugee or evacuee had far-reaching consequences in some children's lives, affecting their education and economic situation. The last section looks at the way in which air raids were explained to the French population. It considers the propaganda that criticised and defended the Allies, and an understanding of the history of Vichy.
translation of that scene’s ‘impression’ on the mind of the painter.1 We are several
steps removed from reality. Representing that reality needs a human filter.
So too for history; yet while positivistic modes of representing the world –
realism, naturalism – have lost their totalising grip in the artistic world, a
certain ‘scientific’ kind of history still chases that goal. Another mode of
history writing is more impressionistic. Channelled through the storyteller
or the historian, the past is recognisable, striking, but not an exact replica
of ‘what actually happened
that a particular event – bombing – might produce. Oral history
has illuminated shared memories of bombing, within and across locations and age ranges. Whatever elements memories share, however, they
remain heterogeneous. That bombing made an impact on the interviewees’ lives is clear from their stories; but without a place in commonly told
versions of the war in France, many do not remember it that way.
Evaluating the impact of bombing on the individual
The Allied bombing of France has left its mark on survivors into old age.
These traces often appear in forms of