poverty, poor environmental health and mental distress, a high death rate for infants and small children, and appallingly high rates of suicide, violence and substance abuse.
As will become clear, patterns of ill-health lock into the struggles around land rights. At a concrete level, however, almost all IndigenousAustralians, including those who live beyond the immediate scope of land rights, are affected by high levels of disease. Questions of Aboriginal health often have a curious status. The linkage between Aboriginal ill-health and what could
This book argues for greater openness in the ways we approach human rights and international rights promotion, and in so doing brings some new understanding to old debates. Starting with the realities of abuse rather than the liberal architecture of rights, it casts human rights as a language for probing the political dimensions of suffering. Seen in this context, the predominant Western models of right generate a substantial but also problematic and not always emancipatory array of practices. These models are far from answering the questions about the nature of political community that are raised by the systemic infliction of suffering. Rather than a simple message from ‘us’ to ‘them’, then, rights promotion is a long and difficult conversation about the relationship between political organisations and suffering. Three case studies are explored: the Tiananmen Square massacre, East Timor's violent modern history and the circumstances of indigenous Australians. The purpose of these discussions is not to elaborate on a new theory of rights, but to work towards rights practices that are more responsive to the spectrum of injury that we inflict and endure.
: it had plagued the white supporters of IndigenousAustralians for
generations, a cause which demonstrated to some of Amnesty’s early
adherents that benevolence and rights were not necessarily bedfellows.
Amnesty and the challenge of Indigenous injustice
Aside from supporting prisoners
abroad, Amnesty sections also took it upon themselves to recommend for
adoption prisoners in their own countries. Kenneth Cmeil explains how
Reflections on the politics of support and opposition
Thompson argues that it was not a political apology because Keating was not formally speaking as Prime Minister but
expressing his opinion or that of his party and also on the grounds that it was
not presented to indigenousAustralians acting in a capacity as representatives
of their people.20
The subsequent debate is largely framed by the Human Rights and
Equal Opportunity Commission (HREOC) report, the short title of which
was Bringing Them Home, published in 1997 about the forcible removal
of indigenous children from their parents. This had
Identity is often regarded as something that is possessed by individuals, states, and other agents. In this edited collection, identity is explored across a range of approaches and under-explored case studies with a view to making visible its fractured, contingent, and dynamic features. The book brings together themes of belonging and exclusion, identity formation and fragmentation. It also examines how identity functions in discourse, and the effects it produces, both materially and in ideational terms. Taking in case studies from Asia-Pacific, Europe, the Middle East and Latin America, the various chapters interrogate identity through formal governing mechanisms, popular culture and place. These studies demonstrate the complex and fluid nature of identity and identity practices, as well as implications for theorising identity.
East Timor in the creation and perpetuation of a pattern of severe and embedded abuse. That failure to pay attention to concrete circumstances marked the ‘realism’ of the prevailing international attitudes on East Timor; to what extent might it also characterise the current liberal approaches?
The third case study, which looks at the ‘place’ of IndigenousAustralians within Australian political life, returns to a liberal rights focus – in this case not involving the language of international rights talk but rather concerning the ideals
sizeable minority of white Australians opposed an apology to indigenousAustralians and a
majority of white Americans have opposed an apology for slavery. Two factors
may help to explain this. First, that although members of the same state, those
groups may not have been identified or considered as co-nationals by those
opposing the apology; there may have been a lack of affective connections.
Second, the ‘doing down of the nation’ still resonates since the apology in
these examples did or would make citizens confront the unpalatable aspects
of the country’s history that
Humanitarian discourse in New South Wales, 1788–1830
Conciliation, and Governor Phillip in
his performance of it, have been lauded as exceptional. Anthropologist and
historian Inga Clendinnen credits him as a visionary in his willingness to
understand cross-cultural issues and integrate IndigenousAustralians into
the emergent colony and society. 4 Others have gone so far as to label him a humanitarian in
his handling of the relationship. 5 Such claims raise Phillip’s stocks as a hero of
taken as already settled, and sometimes quite reasonably so. Frequently, however, as the later discussion of the health of IndigenousAustralians indicates, such analyses assume or demand a crucial zone of uniformity, whether within the state or more broadly – a realm of public discourse that is declared to be neutral and open to all citizens and others, but one that is repeatedly exclusionary. Moreover, it is easy to overlook or forget these practices of exclusion, simply because within states they have proved relatively effective, so that, for example
pain as we reflect upon it today. Those who governed in London at
that time failed their people in standing by while a crop failure turned into a
massive human tragedy. We must not forget such a dreadful event.’26
In relation to the ‘follow up’, Rudd talks of both building a more unified
nation and the need for policies and actions to address indigenousAustralians’
disadvantage.27 In contrast, little specific was mentioned in the speech by
Blair. With the last point, it is harder to make direct comparisons because in
contemporary Australia Rudd had a policy