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Derek Averre

in their suspicions that the most powerful Western states will flout Westphalian norms in pursuit of their special interests, and will use international law and organization as tools of those interests. ( Foot 2003 , 16–17; see also Hurrell 2003 , 28) External actors are faced with

in Russian strategy in the Middle East and North Africa
Filippa Sofia Braarud

. The ecological consequences of industrial mining operations to the marine ecosystems on the deep seabed remain understudied, and these potential ecological risks have prompted a search for new legal mechanisms for states to seek redress should the Area be unlawfully polluted, appropriated or exploited. Although still a relatively ambiguous concept in international law, obligations erga omnes have

in The Sea and International Relations
Marianne Hanson

in the near future. Still, the extent of opposition towards the treaty suggests that disarmament remains a distant prospect.  The TPNW is not legally enforceable on those states which do not sign it Second, the TPNW cannot impose legal obligations on any non-party. While the treaty does constitute binding international law, as with other

in Challenging nuclearism
Edwin Borchard between New Haven and Berlin
Jens Steffek
and
Tobias Heinze

, jointly deployed realist arguments to discredit the League of Nations, the Kellogg-Briand Pact and the Versailles peace settlement. Our discussion focusses on the American isolationist lawyer Edwin M. Borchard (1884–1951) who already in the early 1930s propagated ‘realism’ as an approach to the study of IR, semantically opposed to the ‘evangelism’ of the Wilsonian internationalists. 2 In the historiography of IR and international law, Borchard’s work has been almost completely neglected. Only Hidemi Suganami seems to have recognised the importance of Borchard

in Prussians, Nazis and Peaceniks
Disrupting the nuclear order
Marianne Hanson

international law in the two decades since the ICJ Opinion, together with the research on the humanitarian impacts of nuclear weapons, are now reflected in a treaty which sees these weapons as illegitimate in all cases and for everyone. Immediately, the two-tiered nature and the weak wording of the Non-Proliferation Treaty have been surpassed by a legal proscription which has global

in Challenging nuclearism
Abstract only
The Arab Spring and Russia
Derek Averre

the Libyan leader Muammar al-Gaddafi for the escalating violence, warning him that failure to ensure the protection of civilians would ‘be qualified as crimes with all the ensuing consequences under international law’ ( President of Russia 2011 ). The Russian leadership supported the adoption of United Nations Security Council (UNSC) resolution 1970, which deplored the Gaddafi

in Russian strategy in the Middle East and North Africa
Derek Averre

checks and balances of international law, including in the Middle East: The measures taken against those who refuse to submit are well-known and have been tried and tested many times. They include use of force, economic and propaganda pressure, meddling in domestic affairs, and appeals to a kind of ‘supra

in Russian strategy in the Middle East and North Africa
Abstract only
Derek Averre

and human rights, thereby exacerbating complex conflicts and aggravating cultural and religious tensions to the detriment of regional and global stability. Lavrov has consistently railed against Western attempts to promote a ‘rules-based order’ that seeks to undermine ‘undesirable’ states; he presents Russia’s position as upholding the foundations of international law, in opposition to

in Russian strategy in the Middle East and North Africa
Arantza Gómez Arana

world politics that commenced in 2016 has created the best momentum to further develop Latin American and EU relations for political and economic reasons. For political reasons the shift is intended to reinforce an international arena where multilateralism and respect for international forums and international law continue to exist. For economic reasons it is a way of creating growth and redistributing economic power away from the two largest economies (the US and China) which have clear foreign policy goals regarding the projection of power in both Latin America and

in Latin America–European Union relations in the twenty-first century
State fragmentation, inter-state rivalries and international discord
Derek Averre

criticising Russian vetoes at the UN – arguing that Russia was on the wrong side of history by supporting Assad – were bitterly rebutted by Lavrov, who rejected the politicised nature of their positions and advocated instead a ‘comprehensive and logical’ approach based on traditional international law ( Lavrov 2013 a). Indeed, Russia’s position on Syria both underscored its status as an autonomous power

in Russian strategy in the Middle East and North Africa