Migration contexts, demographic and
social characteristics: refugee women in
Britain and France
This chapter introduces the reader to the landscape of internationalmigration within which female refugee migrants are positioned. Its aim is
twofold. First, it gives an overview of inward migration flows into Britain and
France while bearing in mind both the general European context and
processes of feminisation which have occurred over the last 50 years. Second,
it presents, as fully as available data allows, the demographic
Identity is often regarded as something that is possessed by individuals, states, and other agents. In this edited collection, identity is explored across a range of approaches and under-explored case studies with a view to making visible its fractured, contingent, and dynamic features. The book brings together themes of belonging and exclusion, identity formation and fragmentation. It also examines how identity functions in discourse, and the effects it produces, both materially and in ideational terms. Taking in case studies from Asia-Pacific, Europe, the Middle East and Latin America, the various chapters interrogate identity through formal governing mechanisms, popular culture and place. These studies demonstrate the complex and fluid nature of identity and identity practices, as well as implications for theorising identity.
The limits of the EU’s external dimension of migration in Africa
Tine Van Criekinge
African governments to engage in regional migration dialogue has
been driven by the recognition that prospects for successful regional
integration are strongly linked to both intra-regional and internationalmigration dynamics. As such, ECOWAS has tended to focus on the linkages between migration, development and regional integration (Gnisci,
Although there are some differences in the various emerging agendas
on the continent, some common factors characterise the African position
on migration. Firstly, the role of EU/European influence in the formulation of
controls, there would be no such thing as internationalmigration. It therefore makes sense that we should seek to understand how states go about
making their migration policies – or the walls that states build and the
small doors that they open in them (Zolberg 1989).
The perception of the various forms of internationalmigration as
either positive in terms of economic benefits, or bad in terms of allocation of scarce public goods, is shaped by institutions and organisations
in receiving states (Geddes 2003: 2–3). Policies designate various forms
of migration as ‘wanted
:4–5 (2014), 476–487.
5 C. Doyle and R. McAreavey, ‘Possibilities for change? Diversity in post-conflict Belfast’, City 18:4–5 (2014), 466–475.
7 Census 2011, ‘Ethnicity, identity, language and religion – economic activity by main language’, www.ninis2.nisra.gov.uk , accessed 26 January 2019.
8 E. Morawska, ‘Studying internationalmigration in the long(er) and short(er) durée’, InternationalMigration Institute Working Papers Series 44 (Oxford: International
, Singhvi noted that ‘dual citizenship does not mean dual
allegiance … it will be permitted only for members of the Indian diaspora who
satisfy the conditions and criteria laid down in the legislation to be enacted to
amend the relevant sections of the Citizenship Act, 1955’ (Khan, 2002).
Internationalmigration from the Indian subcontinent
Castles and Miller argue that ‘internationalmigration is not an invention of the
late twentieth century, nor even of modernity in its twin guises of capitalism and
The Indian diaspora
colonialism. Migrations have been part of human
Immigration (New York: Russell Sage), 308–40.
Jørgensen, M. B. (2012) ‘The diverging logics of integration policy making at national and city level’, InternationalMigration Review , 46:1, 244–278.
Kallio, K. P. (2012) ‘Political presence and the politics of noise’, Space and Polity , 16:3, 287–302.
Katz, C. (2001) ‘Vagabond capitalism and the necessity of social reproduction’, Antipode , 33:4, 709–728.
Keating, M. (2009) ‘Social citizenship, solidarity and welfare in
understood), the primacy of unionism and nationalism must be confronted in the public sphere. There needs to be more statutory support for grassroots organising and minority-led civil society to address this democratic deficit.
1 G. Fegan and D. Marshall, Long-Term InternationalMigration Statistics 2006–07 (Belfast: Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency, 2008), p. 3.
2 Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency, Census 2011: Key Statistics for
and discriminatory practices on the part of employers.
* My thanks to Pierce Parker for careful and systematic research assistance with the data analysis.
1 OECD, InternationalMigration Outlook 2015 (Paris: OECD, 2015), p. 79.
2 P. O’Connell and O. Kenny, ‘Employment and integration’, in A. Barrett, F. McGinnity and E. Quinn (eds), Annual Monitoring Report on Integration 2016 (Dublin: ESRI, 2018), pp.18–21.
3 B. Chiswick, ‘The effect of Americanization on the earnings of foreign-born men’, Journal of Political Economy , 86
Setting the context
A new era of internationalmigration, and in particular the increasingly global
search for asylum, has had profound impacts on the political landscape of the United
Kingdom. Chakrabarti’s essay provides an eloquently powerful reminder that
those disturbing features of this new landscape, the incarceration and arbitrary
detention of asylum seekers, are not just the instruments of faraway, repressive
governments: they are increasingly embedded in the fabric of a liberal democratic
state like Britain.
These instruments form the apex of a