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10  Enrico Pugliese International migrations and the Mediterranean Introduction: the Mediterranean migration scene and its evolution In recent decades the Mediterranean has witnessed an expansion of the migration routes and exchanges taking place within its shores and a parallel modification of the actors involved, of the areas where the most relevant processes occur, and of the economic, political and military drivers that activate the movements and determine the direction of travel. Within this frame migrations are at the same time the effects of events that

in Western capitalism in transition
Britain’s emergent rights regime

reform and the management of international migration have been described by David Cameron as ‘two sides of the same coin’ (Cameron 2011). In practice, heightened conditions and sanctions for the benefit-dependent domestic population, both in and out of work, have been harnessed by claims of promoting labour market change and reducing demand for low-skilled migrant workers, often EU citizens, whose own access to benefit is being curtailed. Policy in both areas has engaged a moral message of earned entitlement, and as implied in Mingione’s chapter in this volume, this

in Western capitalism in transition
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second is sport. As a cultural practice, sport can help to construct a shared identity at a range of scales, but it can also be exclusionary. The particular focus of this section is the GAA, a sporting body that was established in Ireland in 1884 but that is now organised internationally. The GAA provides a means to investigate the ways in which sport as a cultural production links place and identity with both internal and international migration. The third focus is cultural representations, specifically music and fiction. Migration results in new forms of musical

in Ireland and migration in the twenty-first century
Global processes, local challenges

This book is a tribute to Enzo Mingione and his contribution to the fields of sociology and urban studies on the occasion of his retirement. It touches upon the processes of transformation of cities to the informal economy, from the Fordist crisis to the rediscovery of poverty, from the welfare state and welfare policies to migration and the transformation of work. These themes constitute the analytical building blocks of this book on the transitions that Western capitalist societies are undergoing. The book focuses on social foundations of Western capitalism, explaining how socio-economic and institutional complementarities that characterised postwar capitalism created relatively integrated socio-economic regimes, It has five thematic sections reflecting five areas of capitalism, the search interests of Enzo Mingione. The first discusses the transformations of global capitalism, addressing how capitalism works and how it changes. The second provides insights into the mechanisms of re-embedding, in particular how welfare policies are part of a societal reaction to capitalism's disruptive dynamic. The third addresses some main challenges that citizenship systems established in the post-war period have had to face, from the spread of new employment regimes to new migratory flows. The fourth addresses cities and their transformation and the final section addresses poverty and its spatial dimension as a crucial lens through which to understand the differentiated impact of the processes of change in Western capitalist societies, both in socio-economic and spatial terms.

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Irish diaspora studies and women: theories, concepts and new perspectives

–8. 4 While all the contributors in this volume engage with theoretical discussions of the term ‘diaspora’, the aim of this book is not to provide an overarching, agreed definition of the term. For a useful recent survey of different approaches to use of the term, see K. Tölölyan, ‘Diaspora studies: past, present and promise’, Working Paper 55, April 2012, Oxford Diasporas Programme (Oxford: International Migration Institute, University of Oxford, 2012), available at www.imi.ox.ac.uk/pdfs/imiworking-papers/wp-55-2012-diaspora-studies-past-present-and-promise, accessed

in Women and Irish diaspora identities

:1 (2011), 9–44. 11 R. C. Smith, ‘Migrant membership as an instituted process: migration, the state and the extra-territorial conduct of Mexican politics’, International Migration Review, 37:2 (2003), 297–343; R. Bauböck, Transnational Citizenship: Membership and Rights in International Migration (Aldershot: Edward Elgar, 1994). 12 B. Gray, Women and the Irish Diaspora (London: Routledge, 2004). 13 D. L. Eng, ‘Out here and over there: queerness and diaspora in Asian American Studies’, Social Text, 52/53 (1997), 31–52; E. A. Povinelli and G. Chauncey (1999) ‘Thinking

in Women and Irish diaspora identities
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people became naturalised US citizens between 2009 and 2011 alone (Lee 2012). Using these two different criteria in one country could lead to significantly different counts of international migrants. As a result, measures of migrant stock are not always directly comparable. They also are unlikely to include irregular migrants (Jandl 2012), and as a result are inevitably underestimated. Measures of migrant stock focus on international migration: on people who cross national borders. Sometimes this occurs not because people move, but because borders change. A recent

in Ireland and migration in the twenty-first century
Diaspora for development?

of Canada. Available online at www.asiapacific.ca/sites/default/files/filefield/capp11_1_boyleandkitchin. pdf. Accessed 17 December 2011. Department of Foreign Affairs (2010) Report on the Farmleigh Global Irish Economic Forum. Dublin: Department of Foreign Affairs. Dewind, J. and J. Holdaway (eds) (2008) Migration and Development Within and Across Borders: Research and Policy Perspectives on Internal and International Migration. Geneva: IMO. Faist, T. (2008) ‘Migrants as transnational development agents: an inquiry into the newest round of the migration

in Migrations
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considering health care migration more broadly, it is possible to show how skilled and unskilled migration intersect, and how both are connected to complex patterns of both internal and international migration. Second, I look at inadvertent migrant workers: people whose main motivation for migration is not necessarily work, but who become part of the labour force in their new homes for a variety of reasons. This includes students and migrants on working holiday visas who, as migrant workers in different contexts, share similar experiences of precarity and marginalisation

in Ireland and migration in the twenty-first century
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the twenty-first century While Ravenstein distinguished between different types of migration, he didn’t prioritise one over the other. Rather, he sought to develop his laws of migration based on movement of people in general, and not just on international migration. There are, of course, aspects of his work that seem less convincing today. Ravenstein wrote about differences between the migration patterns of men and women. He observed that women were more migratory than men but, in contrast to men, they were more likely to be internal rather than international

in Ireland and migration in the twenty-first century