Identity is often regarded as something that is possessed by individuals, states, and other agents. In this edited collection, identity is explored across a range of approaches and under-explored case studies with a view to making visible its fractured, contingent, and dynamic features. The book brings together themes of belonging and exclusion, identity formation and fragmentation. It also examines how identity functions in discourse, and the effects it produces, both materially and in ideational terms. Taking in case studies from Asia-Pacific, Europe, the Middle East and Latin America, the various chapters interrogate identity through formal governing mechanisms, popular culture and place. These studies demonstrate the complex and fluid nature of identity and identity practices, as well as implications for theorising identity.
The limits of the EU’s external dimension of migration in Africa
Tine Van Criekinge
African governments to engage in regional migration dialogue has
been driven by the recognition that prospects for successful regional
integration are strongly linked to both intra-regional and internationalmigration dynamics. As such, ECOWAS has tended to focus on the linkages between migration, development and regional integration (Gnisci,
Although there are some differences in the various emerging agendas
on the continent, some common factors characterise the African position
on migration. Firstly, the role of EU/European influence in the formulation of
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5 C. Doyle and R. McAreavey, ‘Possibilities for change? Diversity in post-conflict Belfast’, City 18:4–5 (2014), 466–475.
7 Census 2011, ‘Ethnicity, identity, language and religion – economic activity by main language’, www.ninis2.nisra.gov.uk , accessed 26 January 2019.
8 E. Morawska, ‘Studying internationalmigration in the long(er) and short(er) durée’, InternationalMigration Institute Working Papers Series 44 (Oxford: International
understood), the primacy of unionism and nationalism must be confronted in the public sphere. There needs to be more statutory support for grassroots organising and minority-led civil society to address this democratic deficit.
1 G. Fegan and D. Marshall, Long-Term InternationalMigration Statistics 2006–07 (Belfast: Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency, 2008), p. 3.
2 Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency, Census 2011: Key Statistics for
and discriminatory practices on the part of employers.
* My thanks to Pierce Parker for careful and systematic research assistance with the data analysis.
1 OECD, InternationalMigration Outlook 2015 (Paris: OECD, 2015), p. 79.
2 P. O’Connell and O. Kenny, ‘Employment and integration’, in A. Barrett, F. McGinnity and E. Quinn (eds), Annual Monitoring Report on Integration 2016 (Dublin: ESRI, 2018), pp.18–21.
3 B. Chiswick, ‘The effect of Americanization on the earnings of foreign-born men’, Journal of Political Economy , 86
’, Jesuit Centre for Faith and Justice (February 2007), www.cfj.ie
11 OECD, InternationalMigration Outlook (Paris: OECD, 2007)
12 T. Fahey and B. Fanning, ‘Immigration and Socio-Spatial Segregation in Dublin:
1996–2006’, Urban Studies 47.8 (2010),1625–1642
13 H.O. Duleep and M.C. Rogers, The Elusive Concept of Immigrant Quality: Evidence
from 1970–1990 (Bonn: Forshunginstitut zur Zukunft der Arbeit/Institute for the
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14 T. Modood et al., Ethnic Minorities in Britain
15 G. Picot, F. Hou and S. Columbe, ‘Poverty Dynamics among Recent Immigrants
: Reflections on the Mechanisms that Cement Their Persistent Poverty.”
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Hourani, G. G. and Sensenig-Dabbous, E. 2012. “Naturalized Citizens: Political
Participation, Voting Behavior, and Impact on Elections in Lebanon (1996–2007).”
Journal of InternationalMigration and
-free mortgage: the bank does not loan money to the buyer, but buys
the property or object from the seller, then re-sells it to the property buyer at a
profit. The latter reimburses the bank in instalments.
More to the point, according to the Global Commission on InternationalMigration, in the year 2000 some 86 million of the world’s migrants were
economically active – over half of all migrants. Those in Europe contributed billions of euros to the economic outputs of their host countries.34 It was found in
Britain that on balance immigration contributes to the state more than
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