France has been a central actor in human protection, yet the existing literature has too often focused on Anglo-Saxon states or states that are wary of its development. In order to address this gap, this book provides an original and much-needed account of France’s relationship to human protection since the 1980s. It analyses a ‘tale of two norms’ using an innovative theoretical framework: The first is ‘France’s domestic norm of human protection’, and the second is the dominant international principle or norm of human protection at the time (chiefly humanitarian intervention in the 1990s and the responsibility to protect (R2P) in the 2000s). Through this ‘tale of two norms’, and also thanks to interviews with key actors such as Gareth Evans and Bernard Kouchner and analysis of fourteen case studies, the book reshapes our understanding of the development and influence of key principles and norms of human protection. It also corrects prevailing assumptions about France’s foreign policy and allows us to anticipate its future foreign policy more accurately. Last but not least, by showing how important it is to pay more attention to the interplay between domestic and international norms and building an innovative framework that can be used beyond the analysis of France and human protection, the book makes a key contribution to the literature on norms and International Relations theory more generally. The book is therefore an essential read for anyone interested in human protection, peace studies, France, foreign policy analysis, International Relations and norm diffusion.
This chapter investigates France's conception of, and contribution to, human protection from 1987 to 1993. This period is particularly interesting because on the one hand, it corresponds to the emergence of France's domestic norm of human protection during François Mitterrand's presidency (1981–95), and on the other, it witnessed the emergence of the international principle that was humanitarian intervention.
Consequently, it allows the analysis of both processes and their interplay in order
The period 1994–99 constituted a challenging time for humanitarian intervention, as it faced strong international criticism before being contested by the end of the decade. In France, François Mitterrand completed his presidency and was replaced by President Jacques Chirac, whose first mandate lasted from 1995 to 2002. Both Mitterrand and Chirac had to work with governments from the opposite end of the political spectrum: the first cohabitation took place from 1993 to 1995 and forced left-wing President Mitterrand to work with a right
PROBLEM-SOLVING WORKSHOP conflict resolution is a form of
peaceful third-party intervention. The approach argues that it differs
from the traditional approaches to mediation in many respects. It
assumes, for example, that conflicts can be best resolved in small-group
discussions which are guided by facilitators. The role of the
facilitator is to assist the parties to communicate rather than to
France and the emergence of the responsibility to protect (2000–2004)
At the end of the 1990s, the international community questioned how to promote human rights without endangering state sovereignty. In response, the early 2000s saw the emergence of a new concept, R2P, in order to allow states to continue protecting beyond their borders, while addressing the issues raised by humanitarian intervention.
During this period President Jacques Chirac was in power thanks to his re-election in 2002.
Between 1997 and
particular, Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa – more commonly known as the BRICS) (see for example Vaughn and Dunne 2015 ; Ziegler 2016 ). As a result, even when studies stop to look at France, it is to focus on particular interventions, in specific geographical domains and historical moments. For instance, when it comes to analysing the emergence and development of humanitarian intervention during the 1990s, authors such as Allen and Styan ( 2000 ), Kroslak ( 2007 ) and Zic ( 2000 ) help us better understand France's involvement in specific humanitarian
simply provide logistical support to the UN intervention (in Soares 2012 ). However, after France co-drafted Resolution 2085 in December 2012, which “authorise[d] the deployment of an African-led International Support Mission in Mali … to support the Malian authorities in their primary responsibility to protect the population” (UN Security Council 2012 ), the President announced a French intervention in January 2013 (Hollande 2013a ). A few hours earlier, the French deployment began through Opération Serval .
This shift of position can be
As explained in the Introduction, investigating France's relationship to human protection over time requires analysing a tale of two norms where the first is France's domestic norm of human protection, and the second is the dominant international principle or norm of human protection at the time – humanitarian intervention during the 1990s and R2P since the 2000s. Although fascinating, this task is quite challenging from a theoretical and methodological point of view for two reasons. First, it calls for a framework that allows the
However, it is important to note that the consultations that preceded this report were partly undertaken to get R2P back on track (Bellamy 2011 , 33). Two years later, the first coercive R2P military intervention was undertaken, without host consent, in Libya. As explained in the Introduction, this intervention was a turning point because it created an ‘oughtness’ for states – and the international community more generally – to protect the Libyan population from the repression of the Muammar Gaddafi regime (see Glanville 2016 , 185). It can thus be argued that while
Architecture, Building and Humanitarian Innovation
white modernist building lit up in the dark, tucked
away in a far corner of the Giardini. I ran to take cover. It featured an exhibit
called Places for People : a sparse but simply furnished
demonstration of real interventions rather than idealistic projections, describing
three projects that had worked with refugees to make modest but important
improvements to their emergency shelters. The ideas were a refreshing change from
the rest of the Biennale because they were so