David Geiringer

-war religion, the focus will be on the way religious devotion worked along gendered lines. While there is a growing body of work on Christian masculinities in the twentieth century, the notion of ‘pious femininity’ remains a central building block in dominant models of religious decline. 2 Callum Brown’s oral-history research has demonstrated that expectations and experiences surrounding religiosity differed

in The Pope and the pill
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Carmen M. Mangion

Conclusion Religion was one of the major forces that shaped Victorian society. Piety, morality and philanthropy took on gendered characteristics and these were intrinsic in the definition of Victorian womanhood. Historians have alternately applauded religion for empowering women and demonised it for encouraging patriarchal attitudes and limiting women’s sphere of activities. Philippa Levine has suggested that the evolving position of women and the deconstruction of masculinity and femininity owe a great debt to religion and sees the church offering women ‘a role

in Contested identities
Cara Delay

actions of the post-famine Irish hierarchy and therefore founded orthodox Catholic belief and practice in modern Ireland.24 Gender also played a central role in the civilising mission, which adjusted priestly masculinities, redefined lay women’s roles by defining them primarily as wives and mothers, and designed systems to contain and control the female body. By the mid-nineteenth century, the Church’s reorganisation and resurgence produced a quickly growing body of professional priests. The diocese of Killaloe, for example, contained one priest for every 4

in Irish women and the creation of modern Catholicism, 1850–1950
Carmen Mangion

-Braithwaite , Class, Politics, and the Decline of Deference in England, 1968–2000 ( Oxford : Oxford University Press , 2018 ); Richard Vinen , National Service: A Generation in Uniform 1945–1963 ( London : Allen Lane , 2014 ), pp. 136 – 61 . Seabrook, Working-Class Childhood , pp. 202–8; Peter O’Brien , Evacuation Stations: Memoir of a Boyhood in Wartime England ( the author , 2012 ), pp. 46 , 264. 29 Hegemonic femininity is often discussed in relation to hegemonic masculinity, emphasising a complementarity that assumes the dominance of men and the

in Catholic nuns and sisters in a secular age
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Cara Delay

, encouraging them to correlate suffering and sacrifice with their faith.69 Their veneration of the bodies of Jesus and the Virgin Mary also helped girls to define notions of Catholic masculinity and femininity. In Ireland, the image of the Sacred Heart of Jesus signified a sympathetic, ‘gentle’ and ‘effeminate’ catholic girlhoods 71 masculinity,70 perhaps contrasting with what many memoirists described as their distant fathers and the more muscular Christianity that ­ Protestants favoured.71 The tortured body of Christ also encouraged girls to empathise with Jesus and

in Irish women and the creation of modern Catholicism, 1850–1950
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Carmen M. Mangion

; Adams, 1996, pp. 203–4; Neville Kirk, Northern Identities: Historical Interpretations of ‘The North’ and ‘North ernness’ (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2000), p. xii. Introduction 7 class, as the construction of identity has been important in defining and maintaining social divisions. Notions of femininity and masculinity, which are culturally derived and constantly shifting, influence the identity of individuals.17 Here again, examining the construction of identity provides a means of understanding the gendering of individuals. The sociologist Nickie Charles maintains that

in Contested identities
Cara Delay

insisted that priests appear in clerical dress at all times.21 The ‘devotional revolution’ featured as one of its main goals a reconstruction of priestly masculinity. ‘This new priest was, above all else’, argues Joseph Nugent, ‘to be an object of emulation, to be the model for a new refined type of Irish manliness. For if the wayward Irishman was to be civilized, the Catholic priest as emblematic of, and representative of, the newly-respectable Church had himself to be the exemplar of modern propriety.’22 The new priest was to be professional and courteous at all times

in Irish women and the creation of modern Catholicism, 1850–1950
Carmen M. Mangion

-Century Woman: Her Cultural and Physical World (London: Croom Helm, 1978); Deborah Gorham, The Victorian Girl and the Feminine Ideal (London: Croom Helm, 1982); Carol Christ, ‘Victorian Masculinity and the Angel in the House\ in Martha Vicinus, ed., A Widening Sphere: Changing Roles of Victorian Women (Bloomington and London: Indiana University Press, 1977), pp. 146–62. Sarah Stickney Ellis, The Women of England, their Social Duties, and Domestic Habits (London: Fisher, Son & Co., 1839), p. 54. [Coventry Patmore], Angel in the House: The Betrothal (London: John W. Parker and

in Contested identities
Carmen Mangion

further relevant complication is reflected in the assumption that the emergence of modernity was associated with the public sphere and concomitantly with masculinity. Some scholars have even suggested that modernity was antithetical to femininity. 15 But the challenges of modernity were definitely encountered by women, as this chapter will demonstrate, and manifested themselves in patterns of utilisation of material goods and media, in further education and professionalisation and in familial relationships. The language of modernity was emphasised in post-war Britain

in Catholic nuns and sisters in a secular age