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Carol Engelhardt Herringer

5 The Virgin Mary and the formation of Victorian masculinities V ictorian religion was, at the official level, largely a masculine enterprise. In neither church nor chapel (with a few exceptions) could women preach or hold positions of authority; their role in religious assemblies as in the home was to support male authority. The clergy would appear to have been well-positioned to take advantage of the religious endorsement of masculine authority, given the sanction of their profession as well as their sex. However, in the nineteenth century clerical authority

in Victorians and the Virgin Mary
Religion and gender in England , 1830–85

This interdisciplinary study of competing representations of the Virgin Mary examines how anxieties about religious and gender identities intersected to create public controversies that, whilst ostensibly about theology and liturgy, were also attempts to define the role and nature of women. Drawing on a variety of sources, this book seeks to revise understanding of the Victorian religious landscape, both retrieving Catholics from the cultural margins to which they are usually relegated, and calling for a reassessment of the Protestant attitude to the feminine ideal.

Marian devotion, the Holy Family and Catholic conceptions of marriage and sexuality
Alana Harris

cautious and resistant to wholesale, overnight revolution in the 1960s. It commences by examining the prevalence within post-war Catholic teaching of devotion to the Blessed Virgin Mary and her husband St Joseph, illustrating the ways in which this Holy Family served as an ideal and model for ‘rightly-ordered’ understandings of femininity, masculinity and the conjugal relationship. In ways that have been little appreciated to date, these understandings of marriage were 130-201 FaithFamily Ch 4.indd 131 24/04/2013 15:53 132 Faith in the family also adaptive to, and

in Faith in the family
Carol Engelhardt Herringer

– made it difficult for Christian men, and especially the clergy, to defend the ideology of separate spheres on which the masculine ideal was premised. One solution to that quandary was to reject a woman whose virtues and power made her preeminent among humans in order to reclaim religion as a masculine enterprise, thus justifying the clerical monopoly on the pulpit, and by extension male control of the public sphere. An analysis of the Marian debates therefore addresses what Michael Roper and John Tosh call the ‘crucial problem’ of analyses of masculinity, that ‘women

in Victorians and the Virgin Mary
Open Access (free)
Lara Apps and Andrew Gow

, 29; Andrea Cornwall and Nancy Lindisfarne, ‘Dislocating masculinity: Gender, power and anthropology’, Dislocating Masculinity: Comparative Ethnographies , eds. Andrea Cornwall and Nancy Lindisfarne (London: Routledge, 1994), 11-47: 18. Gender is by no means a simple or uncontested category.While it allows us to distinguish biological from cultural or ‘socially constructed’ differences between male

in Male witches in early modern Europe
David Geiringer

-war religion, the focus will be on the way religious devotion worked along gendered lines. While there is a growing body of work on Christian masculinities in the twentieth century, the notion of ‘pious femininity’ remains a central building block in dominant models of religious decline. 2 Callum Brown’s oral-history research has demonstrated that expectations and experiences surrounding religiosity differed

in The Pope and the pill
Abstract only
Carmen M. Mangion

Conclusion Religion was one of the major forces that shaped Victorian society. Piety, morality and philanthropy took on gendered characteristics and these were intrinsic in the definition of Victorian womanhood. Historians have alternately applauded religion for empowering women and demonised it for encouraging patriarchal attitudes and limiting women’s sphere of activities. Philippa Levine has suggested that the evolving position of women and the deconstruction of masculinity and femininity owe a great debt to religion and sees the church offering women ‘a role

in Contested identities
Open Access (free)
The gendering of witchcraft
Lara Apps and Andrew Gow

like a red herring.However,this is the case only if one seeks nothing but examples of overt feminisation that correspond to modern views on masculinity and femininity. When we broaden our perspective to accommodate earlier concepts and less overt means of feminising men, we find several clues. For instance, there are tantalising hints that some male witches may have had certain physical attributes associated with women

in Male witches in early modern Europe
Roshan Allpress

(Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1965), esp. p.  264; and in Jeremy Gregory, ‘Homo religiosus: masculinity and religion in the long eighteenth century’, in Tim Hitchcock and Michèle Cohen (eds), English Masculinities, 1660–1800 (London: Longman, 1999), pp. 85–110. See also Geordan Hammond, ‘The revival of practical Christianity: the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, Samuel Wesley, and the clerical society movement’, in Kate Cooper and Jeremy Gregory (eds), Revival and Resurgence in Christian History, Studies in Church History, 44 (Woodbridge: Boydell

in Making and remaking saints in nineteenth-century Britain
Alana Harris

, University of Liverpool, 2011); Deboick, ‘The creation of a modern saint’, in Peter Clarke and Tony Claydon (eds), Saints and Sanctity, Studies in Church History, 47 (Woodbridge: Boydell & Brewer, 2011), pp. 376–89. 59 Lang, Smiles, p. 144. 60 Thomas N. Taylor, The Carfin Grotto (Glasgow: Burns, 1952), p. 9. 61 For a brief history of the Carfin Grotto and its expansion into a vast complex of various saints’ shrines, see www.carfingrotto.org, accessed 2 December 2015. 62 Alana Harris, ‘Astonishing scenes at the Scottish Lourdes: masculinity, the miraculous, and sectarian

in Making and remaking saints in nineteenth-century Britain