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‘The Ballroom of Romance’
Tina O’Toole

the grease in his hair. Even de Valera was well slicked down.7 The reminder here of these ‘strong men’ of an earlier generation suggests one way to read Trevor’s protagonists; mired in mid-century stagnation they are a world away from these heroes of the War of Independence. Post-Civil War disillusion, economic failure and mass emigration had a profoundly negative impact on their generation. Trevor’s ballroom, the word itself recalling the elegance of another age, may be understood thus as a place of possibility, an imaginative space outside the dominant culture

in William Trevor
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Par Kumaraswami, Antoni Kapcia and Meesha Nehru

the population; externally, Cuba was now more isolated than ever, with no exogenous solutions being apparent. After years of severe austerity, mass emigration and social fragmentation, however, it was not external models, but the local, that provided a new definition of the collective. Thus, both organically and, eventually, as a result of state policy recognising the importance of this local level of activity, the national collective was reconfigured once again and given extra impetus with the Batalla de Ideas. This new emphasis on the national – meaning local and

in Literary culture in Cuba
Tara Stubbs

Ireland was a rural idyll – even if this was largely due to a fantastic reading of the Irish countryside and its inhabitants. Jacqueline Genet points out that in fact ‘Ireland’s rural population declined throughout the whole latter part of the nineteenth century’ as a result of the potato famine and the consequent mass emigration, and that by 1961 ‘the rural population became the minority population in the country’;3 therefore, by the early twentieth century, country life might already have seemed in need of preservation. Genet argues that Irish writers first created

in American literature and Irish culture, 1910–55
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The years of crisis and reassessment
Par Kumaraswami, Antoni Kapcia and Meesha Nehru

problems; there was also a renewed emphasis on understanding how social sectors, transformed by the Special Period (especially through limited economic liberalisation, tourism and mass emigration) now functioned, and how changing social patterns and attitudes might threaten the unity of the revolutionary project and its underlying development model. With the creation of fifteen schools for instructores de arte across Cuba, and the founding of the many projects under the remit of trabajadores sociales, these ‘new’ agents and researchers sought to raise levels of

in Literary culture in Cuba
Manchester’s mixed-genre anthologies and short-story collections
Lynne Pearce

Famine, though it had been a hundred years before, had become part of consciousness, seared into the very geography, the half-obliterated paths; those defeated, hopeless people setting out on tortuous journeys, ending in death or exile, the people with their backs to the land . . . It was time to leave, a mass emigration that continued for the next hundred years, which I was forced to join at one of its peaks. (Seán Body, ‘Moving Manchester’ Writers’ Gallery) There is certainly plenty of evidence in the poetry produced by the Manchester Irish Writers’ Group of a

in Postcolonial Manchester
Martine Pelletier

addicted to the most extravagant superstitions. A primeval people really’.37 Though he believes his widowed cousin ought to remarry, he has qualms about the suitability – both social and racial one surmises – of a possible union between Christopher and his housekeeper. Yet, his repulsion at what he construes as an inter-racial union and miscegenation is tempered by his admiration for Margaret’s physique: ‘Pity to see Kent vanish – if he does marry her. Bigger pity though if she were to be diluted. Wouldn’t it?’ (p. 34). Bringing to mind the mass emigration that resulted

in Irish literature since 1990
Matthew Schultz

turned away at the same ports that provided safe-harbor to Irish emigrants a century earlier. Secondly, the St. Louis, having ‘crossed the Atlantic to be refused’ entry, calls to mind the Famine ships that had lain in quarantine outside Grosse Île in the St. Lawrence River in Canada. During the Famine, mass evictions of penniless tenants from equally destitute estates resulted in mass emigration from Ireland to Grosse Île. Often, landlords paid for their tenants’ passage to Britain and North America because sending them overseas on poorly built, and under

in Haunted historiographies
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Sexuality, Catholicism and modernisation in Ireland, 1940–65
Michael G. Cronin

employment were nursing for Irish women and construction for men. As Delaney points out, Ireland’s experience of mass emigration in these years was not unique. Irish emigration was part of a pattern of largescale European-wide migration from underdeveloped agricultural regions to the rapidly expanding industrialised economies, particularly from Spain, Portugal, Italy and Greece to France, West Germany and the Netherlands. Nevertheless, relative to the size of the population the scale of Irish emigration in the decade was especially severe. In 1954 a group of Irish and

in Impure thoughts