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. Scarce livelihoods were protected by mass emigration, by widespread rural celibacy, and by marriages negotiated by elders. Inextricably the church itself became partner in the moral anxieties and social controls of this situation. By contrast, in America more natural patterns were retained, as abundant jobs and housing allowed general marriage and early family formation. There, in 1855, as many as 85 per cent of Irish women could expect to marry, apart from in the poorest slums. Fertility rates were high, up to twice those of native-born New England women.30 There was

in Irish Catholic identities

eroded because these teachers did not speak the language and so did not teach it; only one was classed as bilingual by census officials.94 It is worth pointing out, however, that many of the teachers were appointed with the support of locals who, although they felt strongly about protecting Gaelic, recognised that there were few alternative options for a region still struggling to recover from the mass emigration that had taken place earlier in the century. Irish Catholic culture was specifically targeted and at Mount Pleasant trainee teachers were told to deal ‘firmly

in Creating a Scottish Church