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Nigel Grizzard

married women to shave their heads and wear a sheitel [wig] and for Jews to stay away from dance halls and theatres. In retrospect, the resolutions passed by the rabbis were not surprising; they show more that among the Jewish community the old practices of Eastern Europe were being discarded. Young Jews were taking to enjoy themselves in social and leisure pursuits provided by the wider community. Leeds Jews were moving ‘out of the ghetto’ both physically and emotionally. The great mass migration of East European Jews West had started in

in Leeds and its Jewish Community
Jewish identity in late Victorian Leeds
James Appell

geographies and social strata. The dislocations caused by mass migration inflamed tensions in the period, which were in turn fanned by political developments such as the Aliens’ Act of 1905, organisations such as the British Brothers’ League or the Londoners League, and notably individuals such as Arnold White. 38 Hence, common to many areas in which immigrant Jews settled in Britain is the kind of account related by E. E. Burgess, writing for the Yorkshire Post about the Leylands ‘ghetto’, of the unfortunate coincidence between the Jewish Sabbath and pay-day for the

in Leeds and its Jewish Community
The 1940s to the 1960s
A. James Hammerton

1 Postwar pioneers of modern mobility: the 1940s to the 1960s The postwar generation of British emigrants, more than two million of them from the mid-1940s to the early 1970s, constituted one of the largest mass migrations in the country’s history. In some ways this was an unprecedented episode which marked a change in the long history of British migration. The intensity of demand from most receiving countries for urban industrial workers, rather than the old agricultural preferences, brought huge outflows of the skilled, semi-skilled and unskilled from British

in Migrants of the British diaspora since the 1960S
Societies, cultures and ideologies

Migrations of people, ideas, beliefs and cultures have closely shaped relations between the nations of the British and Irish Isles. In part this was the result of Anglo-imperialism, which expanded from a heartland around London and the South of England, first, then through the ‘Celtic fringe’, creating hybrid peoples who were both Irish and British, before spreading across the globe. At times, Catholics of both islands were exiled from this narrative of nation-building. Political pressures, economic opportunities, a spirit of adventure and sometimes force, spurred the creation of multiple diasporas from the British and Irish Isles. This book brings together a range of leading scholars who explore the origins, varieties and extent of these diasporas.

Wherever Britons and the Irish went, they created new identities as neo-Britons, neo-Angles, neo-Irish, neo-Scots: persons who were colonials, new nationals, and yet still linked to their old country and home nations. British and Irish emigrants also perpetuated elements of their distinctive national cultures in music, literature, saints’ days and broader, diffuse interactions with fellow nationals.

These especially commissioned essays explore processes of diaspora-formation from the English Catholic exiles of the sixteenth century, through the ‘Wild Geese’, Jacobites, traders and servants of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, to the modern colonising diasporas associated with the modern age of mass migration.

The political nationalism of the Irish diaspora since the 1790s
David T. Gleeson

In 1995 President Mary Robinson of Ireland, in an address to a joint session of the Irish Parliament, argued that the Irish people in Ireland should ‘cherish the diaspora’ abroad. By 2015 the once little-used idea of the Irish diaspora had been incorporated into the Irish Constitution, with its own government minister, with a bespoke diaspora policy. The term ‘diaspora’ seemed to suit because as well as including the descendants of Irish emigrants, it implied an element of compulsion in Irish migration. This idea of Irish emigration as one of exile has a long pedigree going back to the early seventeenth century. At the beginning of the nineteenth, images of exiles were reinforced by the political refugees of the 1798 rebellion. Mass migration after 1815, however, complicated this notion of migration as exile. Were all those millions of Irish who left between 1815 and 1995 truly exiles? Did they represent themselves as exiles? Was exile their reality? This chapter uses the concept of diaspora as a way to assess the ways Irish emigration was seen by the Irish who left, their descendants and those they left behind. It does not overlook the Protestant. Ultimately, this chapter will attempt to show how Irishness itself was often defined through the diaspora and the formation of a distinct Irish national identity.

in British and Irish diasporas
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British and Irish diasporas: societies, cultures and ideologies
Donald M. MacRaild, Tanja Bueltmann and J.C.D. Clark

is no different. We are mindful of the words of Kevin Kenny who, in a highly influential piece on the Irish diaspora, once declared that ‘historians can study diaspora discursively only to the extent that the surviving evidence permits’, going on to suggest that ‘it is difficult to find traces of diasporic sensibility among the poor and minimally literate who constitute the bulk of most mass migrations’.33 This is, of course, true. But similar points were once made about ‘history from below’ or about women’s history, and the challenge has been overcome in these

in British and Irish diasporas
The ‘new urban sociology’ in context and its legacy
Michael Harloe

areas; by 1970 it was over 80 per cent. In France the population, static for generations, rose from around 40 million in 1946 to over 50 million by 1970, and the urban population in the larger towns rose from about 10 million to 24 million, from a quarter of the total urban population to about half (Fohlen 1976). In Italy mass migration of the rural population from the Mezzogiorno long predated 1945, but this trend accelerated during the 30 Framing the issues at stake years of the ‘economic miracle’, with massive growth in the northern industrial centres in

in Western capitalism in transition
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Derek Fraser

Long before the mass migration of Jews to Leeds in the last quarter of the nineteenth century, the city had already become a major commercial and industrial metropolis during what Victorians called ‘the age of great cities’. Benefiting from its location at the boundary of a manufacturing region to the west and south, and an agricultural region to the north and east, by the early eighteenth century Leeds had become a thriving mercantile town as a place of exchange and commerce. The Industrial Revolution transformed Leeds, which became by the

in Leeds and its Jewish Community
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From local to transnational
Tanja Bueltmann and Donald M. MacRaild

Anderson’s ‘imagined community’.11 Since most of the people who joined English societies knew about, but never met, their peers in far-flung lands, we find Anderson’s model, with its emphasis on the importance of modern media communication, appealing to explain this transnational identity of English ethnic societies, which formed and maintained impressive transoceanic systems of ethnic celebration.12 What is clear in all this is that, in an age of mass migration and epic continental expansion, these types of societies simply spread, through identified necessity, in line

in The English diaspora in North America
The pillars of English associations
Tanja Bueltmann and Donald M. MacRaild

continues to this day,5 although it was clearly at its most profound during the nineteenth century, when, as a result of the mass migration across the Atlantic that we have traced in Chapter 1, the sheer volume of English migrants required robust systems of support. Within a wider context of expansion and growth, then, the first sections of this chapter explore the nature and extent of the charity provided by St George’s societies throughout North America. The aim is to reveal not only the level of support offered, but also the regulations that governed it. Moreover, the

in The English diaspora in North America