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Disease, conflict and nursing in the British Empire, 1880–1914

argued that nursing practice, education and policy were established and consolidated in the metropole before being exported to the colonies by British nurses, and as a consequence, professional nursing developed independently in each of the colonial outposts. However, cases like that of ‘Nellie’ Gould illustrate that nursing practice was equally constituted on the peripheries, and that a complex network of nursing ideas existed within the British Empire, fuelled and enhanced by the mass migration of nurses between various colonial locations. Ellen Julia Gould (known as

in Colonial caring
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Quarantine, immigration and the making of a Port Sanitary zone

The English System is a history of port health and immigration at a critical moment of transformation at the end of the nineteenth and beginning of the twentieth century. It challenges generally held assumptions that quarantine policies delineated intransigent national borders, and argues instead that the British geo-body was defined as a more fluid construction. A combination of port sanitation and sanitary surveillance, known to contemporaries as the ‘English System,’ was gradually introduced as an alternative to obstructive quarantines at a time of growing international commerce. Yet at the same time escalating anti-alien anxieties sought to restrict the movement of migrants and transmigrants who arrived from the Continent in increasing numbers. With the abolition of quarantine in 1896 the importance of disease categories based on place, which had formed its foundation and which had been adapted for the new ‘English system,’ lessened. However, these categories had not collapsed but were merely transferred. This book examines this crucial transition showing how the classification of ‘foreign’ and ‘domestic’ disease was translated, after the abolition of quarantine and during the period of mass migration, to ’foreign’ and ‘domestic’ bodies – or the immigrant and the native population.

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adopted by anti-alien agitators was not medical but economic, concerned with sweated labour, housing and the undercutting of wages and prices. Unlike other countries which received immigrants during this period of mass migration, Britain did not respond to the arrival of thousands of aliens in the unsanitary steerage holds of merchant steamships with the same medical rhetoric of exclusion adopted with particular force in countries such as the United States. The health condition of immigrants at the moment of arrival, a powerful image in American anti

in The English System
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primary international port – the socalled ‘emporium of the world’ – is central to the analysis. In addition, but perhaps more critical to understanding the book’s general focus on London, are the particular patterns of migration to and through Britain in the so-called ‘period of mass migration’ from 1880 to 1914. Unlike important Northern ports such as Hull, Newcastle and Liverpool, London was a ‘true’ immigrant port, in that the majority of migrants who arrived into the metropolis remained in the city. While immigrant communities did settle in the North and become

in The English System
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the lifeblood not just of Australia, but of colonies in general. Ships were sources of labour, news, goods and food, ideas and government orders, but they also induced great anxiety. Most importantly, voyages were not separate from the social, political, cultural, and environmental contexts through which they began, passed, and ended. Through the experiences of people who travelled, I see voyages as assemblages: medical concerns, military priorities, social hierarchy, penal reform, mass migration, colonial politics, and

in Health, medicine, and the sea
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was a canny Leeds pipe manufacturer aware of a growing Irish market. The use of this pipe to the point of discard suggests that the user could have been Irish or had links to Ireland and, as such, took steps to assert his distinctive identity by using a pipe marked ‘Dublin’. Mass migration from Ireland in the mid-to-late nineteenth century as a result of famine, economic instability, and rural evictions brought many Irish people to the industrial centres of England and the United States. Historian of medicine Catharine Coleborne has

in An archaeology of lunacy

,799 miles respectively.17 This continued to raise the volume of shipping and intensify the magnitude of human movement in all its forms:18 from mass migration, particularly from southern Europe to the Maghreb and the Levant, to the rapid deployment of colonial troops to all corners of the region, to the numbers of Muslim pilgrims – markedly from British India – on their journey to Mecca.19 The increased speed of transport not only intensified human mobility and physical contact, it also accelerated the recurrence and transmission of contagious diseases within the region

in Mediterranean Quarantines, 1750–1914
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Magistrates, doctors and families, 1840–70

-132 Chapter 4.indd 128 01/08/2012 08:58 Insanity on display: Magistrates, doctors and families, 1840–70 129   97  98   99 100 101 102 NAI, CSO CRF, Carlow 1865. Suzuki, Madness at Home, p. 147. NAI, CSO CRF, Wexford 1854. Steiner-Scott, ‘“To Bounce a Boot Off Her Now & Then,”’ p. 137. NAI, CSO CRF, Wexford 1851. K. Miller and B. D. Boling, ‘“Golden Street, Bitter Tears”: the Irish Image of America during an Era of Mass Migration’, Journal of American Ethnic History, 10: 1/2 (1990/91), 16–35. 103 NAI, CSO CRF, Carlow 1866. 104 NAI, CSO CRF, Wexford 1866. 105

in Negotiating insanity in the southeast of Ireland, 1820–1900

intemperance in food or drink, over-fatigue, or perhaps sudden alarm, have destroyed the resisting power’. 95 The violence of cholera seemed to reveal the underlying mental and physical state of the person. Coney’s collapse also makes us rethink our historians’ emphasis on epidemic cholera using the metaphors of mass migration, military invasion, social crisis, colonial disorder, Malthusian purging and industrial modernity that fill the pages of cholera’s literature. 96 Perhaps most persistently, however, cholera’s commentators

in Health, medicine, and the sea
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Contextualising colonial and post-colonial nursing

Chapters 2 and 3. Using the British response to a plague epidemic which originated in China and came to global attention when it hit Hong Kong in 1894, Fletcher takes a long-term view (1880–1914) and a comparative approach, arguing that although nursing practice might originate at the centre it was constituted on the peripheries of the Empire. Thus colonial nursing engendered a complex network of nursing ideas which was fuelled and expanded by the mass migration of nurses from various locations within the Empire. Fletcher argues that by using crises, such as a major

in Colonial caring