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Cerwyn Moore

by the Ottomans, creating a new vilayet of Kosovo.1 The general deterioration in religious relations was heightened by mass expulsions in ‘Muslim lands taken over by Serbia, Bulgaria and Montenegro in 1877–8’.2 These mass migrations from parts of Serbia were coupled with the movement of refugees into and the emigration of Serbs out of Kosovo. At the international level, the influence of the Ottoman Turks continued to decline, while new Slav nationalist movements sprung up in the South Balkans, producing a general sense of unease in the region. In short, the

in Contemporary violence
Mariusz Korzeniowski

from being destroyed, depended on how individual commanders interpreted the orders they received.3 It is worth adding that the delayed revocation of v 66 v Refugees from Polish territories in Russia some orders by the Russian High Command may have been an attempt to create the impression that its ‘orders were misunderstood and misapplied by the authorities here [i.e. in the Kingdom of Poland]’.4 Exodus Capturing the onset of this mass migration of civilians into the interior of Russia is extremely difficult, as eye-witness accounts and memoirs are not numerous. The

in Europe on the move
Paul Flenley

-free travel continued to be delayed (Stratfor, 2016). In some cases, the priorities for the neighbours involve existential threats to the integrity of the state, whether it is the threat from Russia for Ukraine, the existence of frozen conflicts and rogue states in Moldova, Azerbaijan, Armenia and Georgia, or mass migration, terrorism and military coup in the case of Turkey. In these contexts, EU priorities such as human rights and democracy may take second place. There are also differences in economic priorities. In the case of the differences between Russia and the EU

in The European Union and its eastern neighbourhood
The Indian diaspora
Sagarika Dutt

practice Hinduism.’ In Indochina the kingdoms of Fu-nan, Champa, Kambujadesa (Kampuchea),Angkor and Laos were also greatly influenced by Indian culture and civilization. However, mass migration of people from the Indian subcontinent began only in the nineteenth century. Narayan, as well as the RHLCID, notes that the nineteenth and early part of the twentieth centuries witnessed unprecedented emigration of indentured and other labourers, traders, professionals and employees of the British government to the British, French, Dutch and Portuguese colonies in Asia

in India in a globalized world
Cerwyn Moore

armies and leading to the mass migrations of peoples into and out of Kosovo proper. Kosovo has, somewhat obviously, been the site of numerous conflicts.16 More often than not, violence in the region has revolved around the complexities of family and clan rivalries. As Ger Duijzings writes, since living conditions in Kosovo were both harsh and highly competitive, the extended family provided ‘not only a kind of safety net (as is the case in Western Europe), but also a major source of group solidarity and primary defensive-and-attack unit, strictly organised along

in Contemporary violence
Abstract only
Gatrell Peter

, Latvian and other subjects of the tsar, including German colonists who had been resident in the empire since the time of Catherine the Great.13 Armenian men, women and children in the Ottoman Empire were deported and then murdered, punished for their purported sympathy for the enemy; survivors sought sanctuary on Russian soil.14 These practices opened up a whole series of troubling issues, including the interpretation that contemporaries placed on mass migration. Was the mass movement of refugees to be understood as civilians who simply tried to save their skins? If so

in Europe on the move
Abstract only
Refugees in Russia, 1914-18
Irina Belova

Empire. Many of the refugees who fled from the western borderlands originated from Grodno and Vilna provinces. For the most part they were ethnically Belarusians, who settled in Kaluga, Tula, Riazan and Orel, although their numbers included Polish and Jewish households. In addition, Ukrainian refugees from Volyn’ and Kholm, as well as Grodno, tended to settle in Kursk and Voronezh. Finally, the mass migration eastwards included German colonists – like everyone else, subjects of the tsar – who were deported to the Russian interior. In addition to official and semi

in Europe on the move
Abstract only
Displaced persons in the Italian linguistic space during the First World War
Marco Mondini and Francesco Frizzera

economic restrictions, they v 184 v Displaced persons in the Italian linguistic space were seen as rivals for food, and potential competitors for local work. In Naples, Macerata and Umbria, refugees were publicly accused of causing a food shortage and soaring prices; words sometimes led to blows which the authorities had difficulty in calming.20 There was also cultural antagonism. Caporetto caused the first mass migration in the Italian peninsula and, standard Italian being in limited use, there were problems of communication especially among women and the older

in Europe on the move
Andrew Williams

not seen as being threatened by the war in the former Yugoslavia or the genocide in Rwanda or, now, Algeria. The only possible problem might be the mass migration that such conflicts inevitably produce, but even this is seen as a wider problem of economic migration away from post-communist regimes. There is a culture of contentment that we, in the rest of Europe, will escape unscathed, and little evidence of the doctrine of the ‘good neighbour’ except in the most elementary human form of tea and sympathy. It has to be concluded that while Spain was seen as the

in Failed imagination?
Chen Kertcher

detrimental to the maintenance of peace. He also enumerated many additional threats, such as the increase in debt of developing nations, poverty, diseases, famine, oppression, Agenda for peacekeeping 1992–93 89 and the rise in the numbers of refugees, displaced persons and mass migrations of tens of millions of human beings. Boutros-Ghali felt that maintaining a world order comprising countries at peace with one another, and resolving intrastate hazards that threaten this order, would strengthen what he viewed as the positive elements of globalisation. Therefore he felt

in The United Nations and peacekeeping, 1988–95