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Nigel Grizzard

married women to shave their heads and wear a sheitel [wig] and for Jews to stay away from dance halls and theatres. In retrospect, the resolutions passed by the rabbis were not surprising; they show more that among the Jewish community the old practices of Eastern Europe were being discarded. Young Jews were taking to enjoy themselves in social and leisure pursuits provided by the wider community. Leeds Jews were moving ‘out of the ghetto’ both physically and emotionally. The great mass migration of East European Jews West had started in

in Leeds and its Jewish Community
Jewish identity in late Victorian Leeds
James Appell

geographies and social strata. The dislocations caused by mass migration inflamed tensions in the period, which were in turn fanned by political developments such as the Aliens’ Act of 1905, organisations such as the British Brothers’ League or the Londoners League, and notably individuals such as Arnold White. 38 Hence, common to many areas in which immigrant Jews settled in Britain is the kind of account related by E. E. Burgess, writing for the Yorkshire Post about the Leylands ‘ghetto’, of the unfortunate coincidence between the Jewish Sabbath and pay-day for the

in Leeds and its Jewish Community
Tony Kushner

Introduction From the mid-nineteenth century through to the First World War, the Jewish world was re-shaped by mass migration resulting from a combination of factors – demographic and economic as well as the impact of persecution and discrimination. It was a part of a wider global shift in population from south to north and east to west that reflected the (uneven) impact of a new economic age and the forces of modernity that accompanied it. It is, however, especially the movement of

in Anglo-Jewry since 1066
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Derek Fraser

Long before the mass migration of Jews to Leeds in the last quarter of the nineteenth century, the city had already become a major commercial and industrial metropolis during what Victorians called ‘the age of great cities’. Benefiting from its location at the boundary of a manufacturing region to the west and south, and an agricultural region to the north and east, by the early eighteenth century Leeds had become a thriving mercantile town as a place of exchange and commerce. The Industrial Revolution transformed Leeds, which became by the

in Leeds and its Jewish Community
David Doyle

towards eugenics, to thereby maintain existent ethnic hierarchies.28 Dillingham’s reports on marital fertility by ethnic group confirm this.29 In Ireland, the same pressures of population and unequal impoverishment that triggered mass migration from Ireland from around 1828–30, had led the country’s eastern areas to delayed marriage and to the practice of inheritance of farm holdings by one male heir only (with dowry negotiated as accompaniment to an incoming bride). This system became more general after the Famine. The young delayed, even avoided, family formation

in Irish Catholic identities
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S. Karly Kehoe

The mass migration of Catholic Irish was a key stimulant that forced indigenous Catholics to reappraise their relationship with Scottish and British society and come up with a strategy that would allow them to join in with the social, economic and imperial ambitions of the nation and the state. This study examines the changing nature of Catholicism in modern Scotland by placing a significant emphasis on women religious. It highlights the defining role they played in the transformation and modernisation of the Catholic Church as it struggled to cope with

in Creating a Scottish Church
John Lever and Johan Fischer

entrepreneurs were significant: not only did they open some of the first Asian cafés in the city, they also constituted the first movements on the mass migration chains involving migrants from Pakistan, India and Bangladesh that expanded during the 1950s, and which laid the foundations for contemporary Muslim communities in places such as London, Birmingham and Manchester (Werbner 1990; Ansari 2009). By the early 1950s many of these early migrants had become established market traders and some of our informants noted their movement into other business niches. These

in Religion, regulation, consumption
Thomas O’Connor

back into the warp and weft of the international migrant experience, producing a more adequate account of their origins, roles and functions in Irish migrant activities across Europe.20 Accordingly, the various Irish college communities were not merely exile havens and instruments of Spanish strategy but also migrant institutions, components of the broadly spread Irish Catholic world that, long before the mass migration of the nineteenth century, stretched far beyond the physical boundaries of the kingdom. This sharper migrant focus invites a second look at how the

in College communities abroad
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Post-war modernity and religious vocations
Carmen Mangion

religious life. From the nineteenth century, they followed Irish migrants to mission territories, meeting their spiritual needs through Catholic education, health care and social welfare. 67 The economic struggles of the 1940s and 1950s led to yet another mass migration of Irish. 68 Women were a significant constituent of this wave. Irish historian Caitriona Clear argues that women’s emigration should be understood in an additional context: ‘the coming of age of a generation of women who wanted to change their lives’. She highlights the harsh realities of married life

in Catholic nuns and sisters in a secular age
The Church of England and the Expansion of the Settler Empire, c. 1790–1860
Author: Joseph Hardwick

When members of that oft-maligned institution, the Anglican Church – the 'Tory Party at prayer' – encountered the far-flung settler empire, they found it a strange and intimidating place. Anglicanism's conservative credentials seemed to have little place in developing colonies; its established status, secure in England, would crumble in Ireland and was destined never to be adopted in the 'White Dominions'. By 1850, however, a global ‘Anglican Communion’ was taking shape. This book explains why Anglican clergymen started to feel at home in the empire. Between 1790 and 1860 the Church of England put in place structures that enabled it to sustain a common institutional structure and common set of beliefs across a rapidly-expanding ‘British world’. Though Church expansion was far from being a regulated and coordinated affair, the book argues that churchmen did find ways to accommodate Anglicans of different ethnic backgrounds and party attachments in a single broad-based ‘national’ colonial Church. The book details the array of institutions, voluntary societies and inter-colonial networks that furnished the men and money that facilitated Church expansion; it also sheds light on how this institutional context contributed to the formation of colonial Churches with distinctive features and identities. The colonial Church that is presented in this book will be of interest to more than just scholars and students of religious and Church history. The book shows how the colonial Church played a vital role in the formation of political publics and ethnic communities in a settler empire that was being remoulded by the advent of mass migration, democracy and the separation of Church and state.