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Mental nurses and their patients, 1935–74
Author: Tommy Dickinson

Anecdotal evidence of the testimonies of patients who received treatments for sexual deviations and medical attitudes towards them are scattered in the recorded accounts of gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgendered, intersex and queer/questioning (GLBTIQ) people. This book examines the plight of men who were institutionalised in British mental hospitals to receive 'treatment' for homosexuality and transvestism, and the perceptions and actions of the men and women who nursed them. It explores why the majority of the nurses followed orders in administering the treatment - in spite of the zero success-rate in 'straightening out' queer men - but also why a small number surreptitiously defied their superiors by engaging in fascinating subversive behaviours. The book is specifically about the treatments developed for sexual deviations in the UK. Transvestism was also treated fairly widely; however, not to the same extent as homosexuality. After an examination of the oppression and suppression of the sexual deviant, the introduction of aversion therapies for sexual deviance is considered. During the 1930s-1950s, mental health care witnessed a spirit of 'therapeutic optimism' as new somatic treatments and therapies were introduced in mental hospitals. The book also examines the impact these had on the role of mental nurses and explores how such treatments may have essentially normalised nurses to implement painful and distressing 'therapeutic' interventions . The book interprets the testimonies of these 'subversive nurses'. Finally, it explores the inception of 'nurse therapists' and discusses their role in administering aversion therapy.

Psychogenetic counselling at the New York State Psychiatric Institute, 1955–1969
Marion Andrea Schmidt

under psychiatric geneticist Franz Kallmann explored these questions at the New York State Psychiatric Institute (NYSPI) Department of Medical Genetics. Their mental health project for deaf people established genetic and mental health care services that – for the first time in the US – considered deaf people a social minority who should receive care in their own, native sign language. Today, such health care services that consider the specific needs of linguistic or cultural minorities are relatively common in the US. Fifty years ago, however, this was a novelty

in Eradicating deafness?
DGH psychiatric nurses at Withington General Hospital, 1971-91
Val Harrington

hospital is where the action is.4 This chapter briefly examines the origins and development of DGH units, and the concept of DGH psychiatry espoused by Kessel. It explores how the units in general, and Withington in particular, are situated within the broader history of post-war mental health care. Given their importance in policy terms, it is surprising that so little has been written about them. To date, the historiography has been particularly silent about their nurses. This chapter recognises that nurses were central to the running of the Withington unit, and seeks

in Mental health nursing
Perspectives on audiences and impact

Historians interact with a variety of audiences. In the history of medicine – our focus – audiences include government committees and commissions dealing with ethical issues in biomedicine; journalists asking for historical perspectives on new discoveries as well as abuses and controversies in medicine; curators and visitors at museums; sometimes even medical researchers utilizing historical material. A particularly prominent audience for historians of medicine is in health care, students as well as practitioners. An important aim of the book is to challenge the idea that communication between researchers and their audiences is unidirectional. This is achieved by employing a media theoretical perspective to discuss how historians create audiences for academic knowledge production (‘audiencing’). The theme is opportune not least because the measurement of ‘impact’ is rapidly becoming a policy tool. The book’s 10 chapters explore the history of medicine’s relationships with its audiences, from the early twentieth century to the present. Throughout the authors discuss how historians of medicine and others have interacted with and impacted audiences. Topics include medical education, policy-making, exhibitions and museums, film and television.

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Architecture, asylum and community in twentieth-century mental health care
Sarah Chaney and Jennifer Walke

The Mansions in the Orchard project, funded by a Wellcome Trust People Award for Public Engagement, ran from September 2013 to March 2015. On behalf of the Bethlem Museum of the Mind, the authors carried out new historical research and documentation, alongside public engagement activities. The project addressed the largely undocumented twentieth-century history of inpatient mental health care in Britain through the

in Communicating the history of medicine
The role of country of origin
Brendan D. Kelly

policy, A Vision for Change (Expert Group on Mental Health Policy, 2006: 48), also highlighted this group, noting that the mental health needs of specific groups such as refugees, asylum-­seekers and ‘other immigrant populations will be addressed by the provision of comprehensive mental health services that are based on care planning taking all the needs of the individual into account’. How does this altered pattern of mental health need among migrants and non-­native populations translate into access to mental health care and, specifically, rates of involuntary

in Ethical and legal debates in Irish healthcare
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Mary Donnelly and Claire Murray

this finding to advocate the development of increased cultural competence among mental health care providers. Mental health is also the subject of Darius Whelan’s chapter, which analyses the oversight of the operations of mental health tribunals provided by the courts. Whelan argues that the courts have not engaged in robust supervision of tribunals and that the judicial approach has been to endorse tribunal decisions which deprive people of liberty and to limit interventions by the courts to the most serious violations of procedural rights. Whelan expresses

in Ethical and legal debates in Irish healthcare
The working lives of paid carers from 1800 to the 1990s
Anne Borsay and Pamela Dale

interesting link between efforts to resolve the early NHS staffing crisis in mental hospitals (informed by parallel initiatives across other branches of nursing) and the emergence of a distinctive critique of the asylum as a past, present and future locus of mental health care that had no counterpoint in discussions about other hospital facilities. It is, however, evident that the institutional model of care remained dominant, with the 1960s and early 1970s paradoxically seeing both a commitment to alternative models of service delivery and major investments in new and

in Mental health nursing
Stories of nursing, gender, violence and mental illness in British asylums, 1914-30
Vicky Long

within the National Asylum Workers’ Union (NAWU).5 Both scandals concerned the care and management of male asylum patients, not the vulnerable madwoman identified by Showalter. In turn, the scandals affected the status of psychiatric nurses and perceptions of mental illness and asylum patients. Analysis of these scandals illustrates how occupational struggles between different professional groups within the field of mental health care were fuelled in part by conflicting representations of mental illness, and in turn could generate stigmatising discourses which

in Mental health nursing
Nurses and ECT in Dutch psychiatry, 1940–2010
Geertje Boschma

, the government ECT guidelines acknowledged ECT as an acceptable treatment, and from this time on ECT treatment gradually expanded again, although protests went on throughout the 1980s. In 1985, for example, the anti-psychiatric ‘Nuts Foundation’ in Nijmegen organised a public debate when ECT was reintroduced in Nijmegen University Hospital.44 The panel, which attracted over 200 attendees, also included a nurse, Ganny Boer. She was among a list of well-known public speakers on the topic, such as the provincial Inspector of Mental Health Care, and the Patient

in Histories of nursing practice