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Nursing the liberated persons at Bergen-Belsen

,000 women and 18, 000 men. About 90 per cent of the inmates were of Jewish origin, with an average age of 28.11 Typhus and starvation were endemic, as was TB, dysentery and fever.12 Many had gastro-intestinal infections, erysipelas and scurvy. Camp II comprised a series of brick buildings and houses with approximately 27,000 inhabitants of a variety of nationalities. Enteric, TB and erysipelas were present, but no typhus and they appeared better fed.13 Between 1 to 31 March, 17,000 persons died in Belsen. From 1 to 15 April, the day of liberation, a further 18,000 died

in One hundred years of wartime nursing practices, 1854–1953
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The introduction sets out the aim of the book: to set the nursing in the five Crimean War armies into the wider context of the different countries’ military, cultural, political, and economic structures. It describes the imperialist causes of the Crimean War and the war aims of each country, as well as explaining why the book is limited to the Crimean campaign when the war was fought in so many other places. The introduction then indicates how these imperial aims did not have any impact on the nursing. It also explains that the book is organized by systems of nursing rather than by nationalities because the subject matter is transnational.

in Beyond Nightingale

secure the cheaper fare. Emigration agents operating in Europe sold migrants tickets to London and advised them to declare that Britain was their intended destination. This information, and the lack of an onward ticket, was then entered with their names and nationalities in the Board of Trade’s Alien List as ‘not stated to be en route’. Agents advised migrants, after leaving the port, to then temporarily change their names, declare that they had been resident in Britain for any period over five weeks and then purchase tickets from the agent’s correspondent in Britain

in The English System

weeks ago the appointment of an Indian to the post of house surgeon somewhere in Cornwall was cancelled at the very last moment, after it had been duly made, because of his nationality … One can quite understand, and even justify, the preferment of an Englishman when he is competing for a post with an equally able and efficient Indian candidate but one feels prejudice has triumphed over justice when an Indian is rejected even though he is proved superior in talents and ability to his English rival. Especially now, when all the world is praising the bravery of the

in Migrant architects of the NHS

behaviours that can be linked to a narrow definition of racism as related to perceived biological differ­ ence, and those that can be ascribed to the more wide-​­ranging notion of ‘heterophobia’—​literally the fear of difference.5 South Asian migrant doctors could find themselves at a disadvantage because of racism but equally as a result of attitudes toward accent, gender, class, alcohol consumption, nationality, religion and other factors. Racism was a driver of the development of healthcare but so was, more generally, the tendency of many of those working in the NHS to

in Migrant architects of the NHS
The moron as an enemy force

voracious supporters of control measures, the resources provided by entrenched bureaucratic and corporate institutions that profit from the fear, and the media’s proliferation of social myths related to the group in question. As with Japanese internment, the threat that the group is said to present may become so considerable that control policies are extended to persons who have associated with those targeted or even to individuals who simply belong to a specific ethnic or religious group or are of the same nationality as actual or alleged perpetrators. The burden of

in Framing the moron
Hajj, cholera and Spanish–Moroccan regeneration, 1890–99

(1822–98), was to make of that rag of a nation a great people […] fraternally united with Spain through the ties of education, a common mentality and the harmony of interests, as it already is by the ties of tradition, climate and blood, in such a way that, without losing its own personality, it substantially reproduces the features of the Spanish nationality, becoming a sort of African Spain.13 The creation of this ‘African Spain’ would not respect Morocco’s sovereignty as much as Costa’s proposals, but it would not imply a thorough dismantling of the Moroccan state

in Mediterranean Quarantines, 1750–1914
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The practice of nursing and the exigencies of war

nations necessitated the use of German army nurses as well as male medical students and Red Cross volunteers. Brooks argues that the choice of German army nurses to care for mainly Jewish victims of the Holocaust appears at first an odd and perhaps cruel choice. Nevertheless, she maintains, these nurses were trained and the decision to use them demonstrates an acknowledgement of the particular skills that trained nurses had over their untrained colleagues. Ultimately, Brooks argues, it was the clinical wisdom of the trained nurses of all nationalities that enabled many

in One hundred years of wartime nursing practices, 1854–1953
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-Ghael. Studies in the Idea of Irish Nationality, its Development and Literary Expression prior to the Nineteenth Century (Cork: Cork University Press, 2nd edn, 1996). The three asylums opened after Carlow asylum were Ballinasloe (1833), Waterford (1835) and Clonmel (1834), see Eleventh Report of the Inspectors General on the General State of the Prisons of Ireland (Report of Prison Inspectors), H. C. 1833 [67] xvii, p. 11. Eighth Report of Prison Inspectors, H. C. 1830 [48] xxiv, pp. 18–19. Report of the Commissioners of Inquiry into the State of Lunatic Asylums and other

in Negotiating insanity in the southeast of Ireland, 1820–1900

championship winning Offaly hurling team and possessed of such a talent for organisation that even at a young age he had been the mainspring for athletic activity in the county, an ‘assiduous reviver of the native tongue’, and an officer of the Irish Volunteers who was a strict disciplinarian and ardent Catholic. He was a veritable all-​round Fíor Ghael, as his obituary proclaims:3 His mind was filled with the purest and loftiest ideals emanating from a soul burning with patriotism, and faithfully irradiating the piercing light which constitutes Irish nationality. He fully

in Stacking the coffins