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Migration in the last gasp of empire

other migrant groups in post-war Britain, which revealed more clearly than ever before the fact that behind the façade of a universal British national identity lay competing communities of Britishness, reflective of separate spheres of nationality. This chapter explores these different communities and suggests that their coming to the surface was a direct consequence of the end of empire. In June 1948

in British culture and the end of empire

Irish and the English were seen as two separate nationalities. This, combined with the presence of Scottish settlers on the north coast of Ireland, 16 created a complex melée of cultures in Ulster. It was this mixture of cultural identities that would create so many problems over the coming centuries as different nationalities sought supremacy, especially in areas such as County Armagh. This turbulent

in Cultural identities and the aesthetics of Britishness
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popular publications was their flexibility and responsiveness to the needs of nationality and Empire. The reality of the British Empire was that it encompassed a great variety of peoples and places. This fact made available an extraordinary amount of ‘raw material’ for the historian seeking an heroic past, and for the adventure writers who placed their fiction in the far corners of the globe. Because

in Britannia’s children
The decline of consular rights, 1917–39

privileges for rural subjects. 25 Akhun lived for many years as a farmer. As he was exempted from paying grazing tax due to his extraterritorial status, the village headman made up the deficit each year when collecting the village taxes. Frustrated with the accumulated expense, the headman reported the issue to the local amban , surnamed Gui, querying Akhun’s claim to British nationality. On hearing the incident, the consul-general Clarmont Skrine asked the local British aqsaqal to hold a joint enquiry with Gui to determine Akhun’s nationality. In frustration at the

in Law across imperial borders

British subjects. Consuls-general were therefore key informers to two different administrations, which reflected the geographical overlap of colonial and consular interests. Occasionally, some of the reports – involving sensitive questions of political policy or legal questions of nationality – made their way to the metropole: the Foreign Office (for Chinese and consular matters) and the India Office (for Indian matters). During the political upheaval of the second decade of the twentieth century, reporting increased significantly. Following the fall of the Qing with

in Law across imperial borders
The off-duty world of the Customs staff

cosmopolitanism would have been dashed soon after going ashore in Shanghai. The treaty port social order was a complex beast, structured around a series of overlapping hierarchies based not just on race but also on nationality, gender and class. Although many Europeans saw an opportunity to become ‘true gentlemen’ in the colonies, their compatriots overseas were likely to trample on the ambitions of would

in Empire careers
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Mass photography, monarchy and the making of colonial subjects

, their collection of official royal family photographs might also have contributed to their ethnic and cultural identification as a ‘Dutch’ family in the Indies. Max Foltynski's mother, Elisabeth Mathilda de Vries, was Dutch, but his father was Polish, and since nationality was decided by paternity in the Indies, Max was officially a Pole. In 1936, in the context of a political climate where Dutch nationality became preferable to general ‘European’ status in the Indies, Max Foltynski had his surname legally changed to Foltynski-De Vries. The following year he was

in Photographic subjects
The short history of Indian doctors in the Colonial Medical Service, British East Africa

state representatives in roles of responsibility were sometimes of other nationalities and ethnicities. In short, non-whites were not limited to lower departmental staffing roles in the early history of the colonial medical department. Caught in the middle between the white elites and the (mostly) black subordinates, these Indian doctors became entirely overlooked in the medical history of Kenya. Even more recent

in Beyond the state

mentioned above, British law did not allow for the forcible removal of any certified mental patient, regardless of race, culture or nationality, from one place within the Empire to another. In order to repatriate a non-native mental patient, the patient had first to be decertified, legally restoring all the rights and responsibilities of a normal, healthy individual. Patients then had to undergo travel to

in Beyond the state

law as legal parameters and only had the power to award compensation. Yao Yong has argued that these Meetings strengthened the notion of borders, sovereignty and nationality between the two empires. 2 Local people, especially headmen, became aware of these concepts and were able to utilise the jurisdictional competition between China and Britain to pursue their own interests. 3 This chapter takes a British perspective, examining the role of consuls. As Yao has contended, these Meetings often witnessed political and cultural clashes between British and Chinese

in Law across imperial borders