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This study explores the normative dimension of the evolving role of the United Nations in peace and security and, ultimately, in governance. What is dealt with here is both the UN's changing raison d'être and the wider normative context within which the organisation is located. The study looks at the UN through the window of one of its most contentious, yet least understood, practices: active involvement in intra-state conflicts as epitomised by UN peacekeeping. Drawing on the conceptual tools provided by the ‘historical structural’ approach, it seeks to understand how and why the international community continuously reinterprets or redefines the UN's role with regard to such conflicts. The study concentrates on intra-state ‘peacekeeping environments’, and examines what changes, if any, have occurred to the normative basis of UN peacekeeping in intra-state conflicts from the early 1960s to the early 1990s. One of the original aspects of the study is its analytical framework, where the conceptualisation of ‘normative basis’ revolves around objectives, functions and authority, and is closely connected with the institutionalised values in the UN Charter such as state sovereignty, human rights and socio-economic development.

Eşref Aksu

normative basis of UN peacekeeping in intra-state conflicts has evolved unevenly but appreciably in terms of both objectives and authority, with the shift in the pattern of prescribed functions emerging as one important indicator of this change. Objectives were conceptualised here with reference to four key principles enshrined in the UN Charter, namely peace and security, state

in The United Nations, intra-state peacekeeping and normative change
Eşref Aksu

normative basis of UN peacekeeping and the UN’s evolving role in world politics. The literature on the UN’s Cambodia experience has rightly pointed to the ‘comprehensive’ nature of the mission. What is less well understood is the normative meaning and implications of this comprehensiveness, which is what this chapter seeks to elucidate. Here we explore the local, regional and global interests

in The United Nations, intra-state peacekeeping and normative change
Dialogue as normative grounds and object of critique
Naomi Head

fashion to rightness, truth claims can only be redeemed by means of argumentation and a rational consensus. Rightness requires that what the speaker says and consequently does, is right or appropriate in the light of existing values and norms; that there is a normative basis for the utterance. 33 This is, therefore, like justifications for the use of force, a moral

in Justifying violence
Tracing the origins of Swedish neutrality, 1814–1945
Christine Agius

IF NEUTRALITY IS ‘what states make of it’, then the conceptualisation of neutrality can go beyond mere isolationism and provide a more complex reading of the neutral state. By examining the normative basis of Swedish neutrality, a competing story emerges that is central to questions of identity and how modern Swedish neutrality would be practised. This chapter examines the

in The social construction of Swedish neutrality
Mark Webber

undue government influence over the media. 116 Even if we accept that the normative basis of a democratic NATO is shaky, there remains a second way in which democracy is important. This is linked to a point made in the previous chapter, namely that democratic states are both more peaceable toward one another and more cooperative. NATO’s emphasis on democracy is thus a pragmatic not a principled stance

in Inclusion, exclusion and the governance of European Security
Charlotte Wagnsson

). 14 Ian Manners provides a detailed and solid account of the EU’s normative basis according to the body of EU laws and policies, but does not address divergences among EU states. Manners, I., ‘Normative power Europe: A contradiction in terms?’, Journal of Common Market Studies 40:2 ( 2002 ); Manners, I., ‘The constitutive nature of values, images and principles in the European

in Security in a greater Europe
The analytical framework
Eşref Aksu

, functions, and authority as detected in peacekeeping environments Our concentration on peacekeeping environments is intended to uncover any changes to the normative connection between the UN and intra-state conflicts. In this context we have already made reference to the ‘normative basis’ of UN peacekeeping, alluding to its connection with three crucial concepts that we use in

in The United Nations, intra-state peacekeeping and normative change
Evolution of the normative basis
Eşref Aksu

T HE CHANGING MACROPOLITICAL landscape brought in its wake both continuities and discontinuities in the normative basis of intra-state peacekeeping, which we will closely examine in the context of four detailed case studies. Each case study in the following chapters will of necessity be handled in its ‘own’ time, in seemingly static fashion. This chapter will

in The United Nations, intra-state peacekeeping and normative change
Problematising the normative connection
Eşref Aksu

maintenance of international peace and security. No doubt, these beliefs find some support from the wording of the Charter. However, does the UN’s actual practice not raise serious doubts about their correctness? The organisation’s active involvement in intra-state conflicts is a case in point. It may well be the case that international players are redefining the UN’s ‘normative basis’, that is its ideal

in The United Nations, intra-state peacekeeping and normative change