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Ian Aitken

posthumous publication of Toward the Ontology of Social Being (1971–73) (hereafter referred to as the Ontology ). The other took the form of a more practically oriented exertion to both demoralise the raison d’être of orthodox communist ideology, and replace that rationale with one associated with forms of ‘humanist socialist Marxism’ (Shafai, 1996 : 1). This latter objective, which

in Lukácsian film theory and cinema
The short films (2010–11)
Deborah Martin

shared concern with fluid ontologies and becom­ ings, where the formlessness of water is suggestive of an opposition to established forms, recalling the meanings often assigned to water in myth.1 In Cinema 2, Deleuze observes the ‘liquid quality which […] marks the visual image in Marguerite Duras’, a quality which he sees in ‘the tropical Indian humidity which rises from the river, but which spreads out on the beach and in the sea as well [in India Song]’ and in ‘the dampness of Normandy which already drew Le camion from the Beauce to the sea […]’ (1989, 248). Such

in The cinema of Lucrecia Martel
Robin Nelson

, rather than mass, markets come to dominate. The “as if live” of broadcast television may also be undermined if narrowcasting results in increased timeshifting and further audience fragmentation. In sum, as Carroll (2003) notes, the misconception of habitual assumptions about the ontology of the television and film media are made evident by developments in TV3. Boundary distinctions between the two media as historically constructed are becoming increasingly blurred. As Carroll summarises, it was assumed that: TV has an impoverished image (marked by low resolution and

in State of play
Abstract only
Experimental British television
Laura Mulvey

and discussion. Exterior scenes introduced without synchronised sound were unsatisfactorily extraneous to both drama and current affairs programmes. The arrival of 16 mm film complicates an ontological approach to television aesthetics. Jamie Sexton in Chapter 5 traces the use of 16 mm from current affairs (such as World in Action [ITV, 1962–98]) as it crossed to the arts documentary and also to drama.16 For John Caughie the intrusion of film into television represents a ‘fall from grace’, in an echo of the purist film avant-garde’s attitude to the coming of sound

in Experimental British television
Writing, painting and photography
John Corner

copying those of painting) and in the creative licence the photographer can introduce (Winston, 2000 discusses the freedom for ‘adjustment’ even accorded to early press photography), there is a well-remarked ‘scientific’ strand too. As a copy produced in part by the physicality of that which is copied (see the discussion in Chapter 2), photography clearly enters a different ontological and epistemological realm from that occupied by writing and painting, a fact which has generated a large and rich literature of critical commentary and theoretical reflection (Barthes

in Theorising Media
Imperial fictions: Doctor Who, post-racial slavery and other liberal humanist fantasies
Susana Loza

the ways in which the western media understand and deal with racism.13 From its inception, Doctor Who has envisioned itself as an anti-­ imperialist, post-colonial, and multicultural antidote to entrenched British ethnocentrism. Whovian scholars, like Charles (2007), Clark (2013), Fly (2013), and Orthia (2013), suggest the serial’s ontological and ideological perspective is more accurately described as liberal humanist and colourblind Universalist. This perspective is embodied by the show’s protagonist, ‘the Doctor’, a sardonic white male alien who could easily be

in Adjusting the contrast
Derek Schilling

mentor’s ‘first principle’: ‘Le cinéma apparaît comme l’achèvement dans le temps de l’objectivité photographique’ (Cinema appears as the completion in time of photographic objectivity) (Rohmer 1984 : 153/ 1989 : 97). This thesis of film’s mechanical, objective character, which Bazin first proposed in a landmark essay of 1945 on the ‘ontology’ of the photographic image, heralded in Rohmer’s view a Copernican revolution, for

in Eric Rohmer
Poststructuralism and naturalism in literature, television and film in the 1980s
Jonathan Bolton

. As many critics have theorized, the postmodern era, following scientific revelations of uncertainty and the aleatory behavior of matter, brought a shift from epistemology to ontology, from the search for knowledge, however illusive, to the existential condition of being. Since the 1960s, postmodern scholar Patricia Waugh notes, “deconstructionists were showing how rhetoric subverts rather than supports logic, how all meanings undo themselves, and how there can be no non-complicit transcendent position outside language from which to proclaim universal truths

in The Blunt Affair
The case of Shoot the Messenger
Sarita Malik

constructions and, therefore, ontologically unstable categories. Stuart Hall’s work foregrounds the role of culture and cultural processes in determining how race is discursively constructed, so that ‘race’ is a ‘floating signifier’ whose meaning is never fixed,10 So if we take ‘race’ as an ‘open political category’ as suggested by Gilroy,11 albeit with powers of fixity within the politics of the state, our question may be posed in terms of what STM is saying about race through its representations. Looking back at the early history of representations of Black characters or

in Adjusting the contrast
Robin Nelson

image and sound but a greater degree of manipulation of that image and sound. Furthermore, the capacity digitally to create imagery by computer generation (CGI) raises fundamental questions about the ontology of the image. In the past, there was an object external to the camera (in drama, typically, actors moving amongst physical sets or locations), the images being recorded by the apparatus (on film or on videotape). In television traditionally understood, as Lury puts it, ‘The image produced is lifted from the real, an ‘electronic trace’ … images that are both live

in State of play