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acknowledging the similarities of thinking in both Muslim and Western philosophy (see also Marks 2010 and Sedgwick 2016 ). Throughout the book I return to these philosophies when analysing the differences and similarities of psychiatric healthcare and Islamic exorcism. In Maurice Merleau-Ponty's ( 2002[1945] ) phenomenology of perception, the invisible is described as an implication and a necessary part of all human perception. Indeed, it is a condition for perception. Merleau-Ponty explores this hypothesis at the level of motor

in Descending with angels
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Pollution, contamination and the neglected dead in post-war Saigon

on the dead and ‘press them into service’ (Lévi-Strauss 1992: 233). He notes that in all societies ‘a form of sharing cannot be avoided’ between the living and the deceased (233). For Hegel in the Phenomenology of Spirit (paragraphs 452 and 453) the ethical nature of the family is revealed in the act of burial and of caring for the dead (1977: 270–2). I work through this insight by focusing on violations of what Hegel analyses as fundamental ethical norms revealed in the care for the dead. In ‘Miasma’, Taussig (2004) reflects on the interactions between marshes

in Governing the dead

(Crutchlow et al. 2016). These applications work through data walking’s potential to create a phenomenology of data, and link this process to previous ethnographic explorations that focus on space, movement and context in the production of knowledge (Lee and Ingold 2006). Through the framework provided by the observational roles and the kinds of data relationships they are asked to observe, participants construct a narrative for how they define and critique data in place. The whole experience, based on an encounter between participatory ethnography and devised performance

in Ethnography for a data-saturated world
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Theoretical approaches

officially deeming as ungrievable – even in the private sphere – the millions who suffered death because of the regime. Conclusion As the foregoing theoretical approaches suggest, each in its own way, we are dealing with deep layers of the constitution and change of political and moral communities, with phenomena that eschew simple rationalisations and explanations. Whether we take psychoanalysis, phenomenology, critical theory or even (to some extent) structural functionalism as our theoretical frame of reference, they all point to an excess of meaning and affect

in Governing the dead

curious figures – the Knight of Infinite Resignation, capable only of relinquishing the visible and finite world, and the Knight of Faith, capable of grasping finitude on the strength of the absurd. In a certain way, Merleau-Ponty's phenomenology of perception can be understood in terms of these movements of resignation and faith. His whole philosophy consisted of an attempt to establish that we are indeed a part of this world. Human perception does not merely exist within us, but occurs to us through our embeddedness in the infinite web of viewpoints that surrounds us

in Descending with angels

‘the presence of an unthinkable in thought’ and ‘the presence to infinity of another thinker in the thinker, who shatters every monologue of a thinking self’ (2005b: 163; see also Marks 2010 : 69). In this context I understand Hegel's notion of self-consciousness as the freedom and peace of mind that can be experienced upon realising that autonomous mastery is not possible. Hegel's phenomenology parallels that of Merleau-Ponty when he describes the dependency of subjective human vision on the vast, normative, all-encompassing viewpoint that

in Descending with angels