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words, having observed shifts in the epistemology of body-knowledge in China, this chapter will explore whether such shifts also generated a change in the lived experience (or phenomenology) of the body. Blood in the canonical medical literature Literate physicians in imperial China found it natural to ground their understandings of the body in canonical works such as the Yellow Emperor’s Inner Canon (黃帝內經). This compilation of Han Dynasty (206 BCE–220 CE) texts (and a few earlier and later) explains the body, in health and disease, as part of the cosmological order

in Historical epistemology and the making of modern Chinese medicine
A conceptual history 1200–1900

This collection explores how concepts of intellectual or learning disability evolved from a range of influences, gradually developing from earlier and decidedly distinct concepts, including ‘idiocy’ and ‘folly’, which were themselves generated by very specific social and intellectual environments. With essays extending across legal, educational, literary, religious, philosophical, and psychiatric histories, this collection maintains a rigorous distinction between historical and contemporary concepts in demonstrating how intellectual disability and related notions were products of the prevailing social, cultural, and intellectual environments in which they took form, and themselves performed important functions within these environments. Focusing on British and European material from the middle ages to the late nineteenth century, this collection asks ‘How and why did these concepts form?’ ‘How did they connect with one another?’ and ‘What historical circumstances contributed to building these connections?’ While the emphasis is on conceptual history or a history of ideas, these essays also address the consequences of these defining forces for the people who found themselves enclosed by the shifting definitional field.

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Encountering Irigaray

philosophical aspects to her work – phenomenology first and foremost – but also psychoanalytic theory, dialectics and ethics. These elements are never employed, however, in a manner that is consistent with their traditional usage. The following quotation is an illustration of her combination of certain of these approaches with specific reference to the work of Hegel: Using phenomenology without dialectic would risk nevertheless a reconstruction of a solipsistic world, including a feminine world unconcerned with the masculine world or which accepts remaining parallel to the

in Divine love
The tragic voice of Richard Wright

existentialism, and its hold over popular mentalities, can also be explained by the presence of Paris noir , in which the overriding imperative of the constitution of black subjectivity – after colonialism, after slavery – recast the traditions of classical philosophy. 38 Phenomenology in the technical nomenclature and existentialism in the popular idiom represented, in David Macey

in Cultures of decolonisation
Irigaray and Hegel

pronouncements on Antigone (as in Chanter 1995: 115). She discerns that the figure of Antigone in the literature is an equivocal one, and that most interpretations have been slanted by a ‘masculine’ viewpoint (1993b: 121). Her initial interrogations involve a sophisticated mimetic double play of the Hegelian rendition of Antigone in Phenomenology of Spirit (Hegel 1977). In disclosing Hegel’s biased assumptions, Irigaray reveals his ‘amazing vicious circle’ (Irigaray 1985a: 223) of quasi-logical manoeuvres that both exclude women and render them powerless, if they attempt to

in Divine love
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Empire and law, ‘Firmly united by the circle of the British diadem’

whiteness, see Radhika Mohanram, Imperial White: Race, Diaspora, and the British Empire (Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press, 2007 ); Sara Ahmed, ‘A Phenomenology of Whiteness’, Feminist Theory 8 ( 2007 ), pp. 149–168. For studies of whiteness in the eighteenth century, see Cecily Jones, Engendering Whiteness: White Women and Colonialism in Barbados and

in Britain and its internal others, 1750–1800
A case study in colonial Bildungskarikatur

. Among the complexities of employing novel theory of any sort as a heuristic for interpreting political cartoons, are certain differences in narrative form and their impact on the process of reading. A striking case is the incongruous phenomenologies of consumption enjoined by each genre. Infamously labelled by Henry James as ‘large loose baggy monsters’, nineteenth-century novels are long, and reading them requires the gradual accretion of detail and incident over a significant period of time; powers of memory and sublimation were particularly tested by the process of

in Comic empires
Open Access (free)
The predicament of history

négritude are significant in this respect. So too, as Mary Chamberlain establishes, was George Lamming’s entry in the middle 1950s into the Parisian intellectual milieu which brought together Sartrean phenomenology and négritude – from which so much contemporary thinking on ‘the fact of blackness’ has subsequently derived. Insofar as French philosophy touched the intellectual culture of the British in

in West Indian intellectuals in Britain
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(2005), p. 814. 14 For analyses of this latter period from a variety of perspectives see B. Rogaly and B. Taylor, Moving Histories of Class and Community: Identity, Place and Belonging in Contemporary England (London: Palgrave, 2009); B. Skeggs, Formations of Class and Gender (London: Sage, 1997); S. J. Charlesworth, A Phenomenology of Working Class Experience (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000); Z. Bauman, Work, Consumerism and the New Poor (Maidenhead: Open University Press, 2005); G. Evans, Educational Failure and White Working Class Children in Britain

in The working class in mid-twentieth-century England
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Stripping of the Altars: Traditional Religion in England c.1400–c.1580, 2nd edn (New Haven and London, 2005). 7 Gérard Genette, Paratexts: Thresholds of Interpretation (orig. Seuils, Paris 1987), tr. Jane E. Lewin (Cambridge, 1997). Such an examination is in tune with the recent emphasis on ‘new philology’ and especially the significance of manuscript reception in the study of religious phenomenology (as in Eamon Duffy, Marking the Hours: English People and Their Prayers 1240–1570 (New Haven and London, 2006)). 8 John Bale, Illustrium maioris Britanniae, scriptorum

in Approaching the Bible in medieval England