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Problems of definition and historiography
Irina Metzler

observed that making psychiatric distinctions between the phenomenology of autism and the pathologies and behaviours of persons with (severe) ID is very difficult in those people with genetic syndromes of ID, since ‘complex cognitive, communicative, behavioral, emotional, and physical difficulties … may mask or emulate’ autism, but according to ‘ a pragmatic perspective, the etiology of the behavior presentation is, arguably, unimportant ’ 13 [emphasis added]. Mental retardation can be associated with major chromosomal abnormalities or single-gene disorders such as

in Fools and idiots?
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Helen Barr

Chapter Seven discusses the composition of the cover image in relation to temporal circularity, mirror images and the phenomenology of left/right apprehension.

in Transporting Chaucer
Paul Strohm

want to argue that such imaginary relations – relations of ‘fandom’, as it were – are a frequent if unacknowledged component of literary enjoyment, and I want to think further about whether the formation of such relations might have any defensible elements at all. That is, might one discover an intellectually coherent aspect of this debunked practice? I want to weigh two possible forms of identification with an author: one involving some extremely preliminary thoughts about the author-in-the text and the phenomenology of textual encounter, and the other involving the

in Contemporary Chaucer across the centuries
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Chanita Goodblatt and Eva von Contzen

Hospitality: Shakespearean Drama between Historicism and Phenomenology’, Poetics Today 35.4 (2014), pp. 615–33. 7 See also Philip Butterworth, Staging Conventions in Medieval English Theatre (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2014); Janette Dillon, Language and Stage in Medieval and Renaissance England (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010).

in Enacting the Bible in medieval and early modern drama
An enactive reading of the Middle English cycle plays
Eva von Contzen

pertinent; see e.g. Cristina Maria Cervone, Poetics of the Incarnation: Middle English Writing and the Leap of Love (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2012). 11 Maurice Merleau-Ponty, Phenomenology of Perception , trans. Donald A. Landes (London and New York: Routledge, 2012). 12 See Alva

in Enacting the Bible in medieval and early modern drama
Transhistorical empathy and the Chaucerian face
Louise D’Arcens

’s account of the embodied and affective experience of encountering faces, which confirms but modifies Levinas’s account by combining phenomenology and enactive cognitivist approaches. Although Gallagher agrees with Levinas that ‘the transcendence at stake’ in face-to-face encounters ‘involves one’s capacity to perceive in the other … the potential to take one beyond oneself’,20 he grounds this intersubjective experience in cognitive perception and, importantly, in affective response which ‘involves complex interactive behavioral and response patterns arising out of … the

in Contemporary Chaucer across the centuries
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Aldhelm’s leech riddle – Peter Buchanan
Peter Buchanan

the human eaten: ‘If the eaten is to become food, it must be digestible to the out-side it enters. Likewise, if the eater is to be nourished, it must accommodate itself to the internalised out-side. In the eating encounter, all bodies are shown to be but temporary congealments of a materiality that is a process of becoming, is hustle and flow punctuated by sedimentation and substance’. 34 In being eaten, humans discover themselves as something to be digested. In Bennett’s materialism, all bodies are equally ‘congealments of … materiality’, but the phenomenology of

in Riddles at work in the early medieval tradition
Open Access (free)
On Anglo-Saxon things
James Paz

theorists such as Jane Bennett, whose concept of ‘thing-​power’ in Vibrant Matter (2010) seeks to ‘acknowledge that which refuses to dissolve completely into the milieu of human knowledge’ while aiming to ‘attend to the it as actant’.10 Even more recently, Ian Bogost’s Alien Phenomenology (2012) situates things at the centre of being and advocates the use of metaphor in philosophy as a means of glimpsing things as they exist outside of human consciousness.11 The work of Levi Bryant (2011) puts entities at all levels of scale on equal ontological footing and Timothy Morton

in Nonhuman voices in Anglo-Saxon literature and material culture
Open Access (free)
Daniel C. Remein and Erica Weaver

ourselves’, and yet also insist that ‘reading Beowulf , even after all these years is not like talking to an old friend’. 16 And yet, even though the poem offers itself up to questions of old friends very naturally, intimacy is rarely articulated openly as a guiding critical framework. Many times when intimacy is invoked in places where we would expect to see it – in queer theory, affect studies, and theories of sensation or phenomenology – it functions metaphorically as a descriptor of a certain kind

in Dating Beowulf
Elisabeth Dutton

is claimed to either be the only real source and substance of all drama or fundamental to none of it. 21 Thinking very particularly about the bread and wine of the Mass, Sofer considers differing theological positions on the phenomenology of the Mass that can offer ‘distinct models for understanding how objects become signs on stage without effacing their material being’: the Catholic doctrine of transubstantiation; the Lutheran doctrine of consubstantiation in which the host is both bread and flesh; and the

in Enacting the Bible in medieval and early modern drama