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Problems of definition and historiography

the infants could survive into adulthood. With regard to autism spectrum, it has been observed that making psychiatric distinctions between the phenomenology of autism and the pathologies and behaviours of persons with (severe) ID is very difficult in those people with genetic syndromes of ID, since ‘complex cognitive, communicative, behavioral, emotional, and physical difficulties … may mask or emulate’ autism, but according to ‘a pragmatic perspective, the etiology of the behavior presentation is, arguably, unimportant’13 [emphasis added]. Mental retardation can

in Fools and idiots?
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Chapter Seven discusses the composition of the cover image in relation to temporal circularity, mirror images and the phenomenology of left/right apprehension.

in Transporting Chaucer

want to argue that such imaginary relations – relations of ‘fandom’, as it were – are a frequent if unacknowledged component of literary enjoyment, and I want to think further about whether the formation of such relations might have any defensible elements at all. That is, might one discover an intellectually coherent aspect of this debunked practice? I want to weigh two possible forms of identification with an author: one involving some extremely preliminary thoughts about the author-in-the text and the phenomenology of textual encounter, and the other involving the

in Contemporary Chaucer across the centuries
Transhistorical empathy and the Chaucerian face

’s account of the embodied and affective experience of encountering faces, which confirms but modifies Levinas’s account by combining phenomenology and enactive cognitivist approaches. Although Gallagher agrees with Levinas that ‘the transcendence at stake’ in face-to-face encounters ‘involves one’s capacity to perceive in the other … the potential to take one beyond oneself’,20 he grounds this intersubjective experience in cognitive perception and, importantly, in affective response which ‘involves complex interactive behavioral and response patterns arising out of … the

in Contemporary Chaucer across the centuries
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On Anglo-Saxon things

theorists such as Jane Bennett, whose concept of ‘thing-​power’ in Vibrant Matter (2010) seeks to ‘acknowledge that which refuses to dissolve completely into the milieu of human knowledge’ while aiming to ‘attend to the it as actant’.10 Even more recently, Ian Bogost’s Alien Phenomenology (2012) situates things at the centre of being and advocates the use of metaphor in philosophy as a means of glimpsing things as they exist outside of human consciousness.11 The work of Levi Bryant (2011) puts entities at all levels of scale on equal ontological footing and Timothy Morton

in Nonhuman voices in Anglo-Saxon literature and material culture

Ingold, Being Alive, pp. 15–​32. 44 Ingold, Being Alive, pp.  30–​1. In this section, Ingold is critiquing Christopher Tilley’s The Materiality of Stone:  Explorations in Landscape Phenomenology (Oxford: Berghahn, 2004). 45 Orton and Wood with Lees, Fragments of History, p. 142. 46 ‘Swan’: Ferdinand Holthausen, ‘Anglosaxonica Minora’, Beiblatt zur Anglia, 36 (1925), 219–​20; ‘quill pen’:  F.  H. Whitman, Old English Riddles (Ottawa:  Canadian Federation for the Humanities, 1982), pp.  144–​8; ‘figurehead’:  see Williamson, Old English Riddles of the Exeter Book, pp

in Nonhuman voices in Anglo-Saxon literature and material culture
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hundreds of pairs ended up on the left half of the body mould, and the other on the right. Both sides of the bread body were then flipped over. The result was that the co-ordinates of left and right failed to signify in the way that we are accustomed to think that they do. They could not be seen as opposites; nor could they give an observer back their comfortable bearings. The ‘universal’ of perceiving left from right was confounded because Gormley made an enantiomorph. Because the sculpture disrupted the phenomenology of left/right apprehension, intuitions about how we

in Transporting Chaucer
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Migrations

Ahmed, Queer Phenomenology, p. 3.

in Visions and ruins
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Stripping of the Altars: Traditional Religion in England c.1400–c.1580, 2nd edn (New Haven and London, 2005). 7 Gérard Genette, Paratexts: Thresholds of Interpretation (orig. Seuils, Paris 1987), tr. Jane E. Lewin (Cambridge, 1997). Such an examination is in tune with the recent emphasis on ‘new philology’ and especially the significance of manuscript reception in the study of religious phenomenology (as in Eamon Duffy, Marking the Hours: English People and Their Prayers 1240–1570 (New Haven and London, 2006)). 8 John Bale, Illustrium maioris Britanniae, scriptorum

in Approaching the Bible in medieval England
Hope, fear and time in Troilus and Cressida

and fear singular among the emotions, and it can be said that fear and hope are the Janus face that men and women wear when they turn to the future. Phenomenology has argued that human experience is enabled by emotional states underpinning the perception of the world. Not only does this emotional state precede all thoughts and considerations; it is the very condition of their possibility: human beings

in Love, history and emotion in Chaucer and Shakespeare