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Encountering Irigaray

philosophical aspects to her work – phenomenology first and foremost – but also psychoanalytic theory, dialectics and ethics. These elements are never employed, however, in a manner that is consistent with their traditional usage. The following quotation is an illustration of her combination of certain of these approaches with specific reference to the work of Hegel: Using phenomenology without dialectic would risk nevertheless a reconstruction of a solipsistic world, including a feminine world unconcerned with the masculine world or which accepts remaining parallel to the

in Divine love

acknowledging the similarities of thinking in both Muslim and Western philosophy (see also Marks 2010 and Sedgwick 2016 ). Throughout the book I return to these philosophies when analysing the differences and similarities of psychiatric healthcare and Islamic exorcism. In Maurice Merleau-Ponty's ( 2002[1945] ) phenomenology of perception, the invisible is described as an implication and a necessary part of all human perception. Indeed, it is a condition for perception. Merleau-Ponty explores this hypothesis at the level of motor

in Descending with angels
Irigaray and Hegel

pronouncements on Antigone (as in Chanter 1995: 115). She discerns that the figure of Antigone in the literature is an equivocal one, and that most interpretations have been slanted by a ‘masculine’ viewpoint (1993b: 121). Her initial interrogations involve a sophisticated mimetic double play of the Hegelian rendition of Antigone in Phenomenology of Spirit (Hegel 1977). In disclosing Hegel’s biased assumptions, Irigaray reveals his ‘amazing vicious circle’ (Irigaray 1985a: 223) of quasi-logical manoeuvres that both exclude women and render them powerless, if they attempt to

in Divine love
Irish-American fables of resistance

1991: 160–​1) In addition to faith and integration into a community, the Church provided systems and a phenomenology that gave substance to Gordon’s world, ‘a poetry of accumulation’ that would serve as a starting and testing point for her life as an adult. Two important aspects of her cultural upbringing that Gordon highlights are the global and the local, and their interplay: so to be a Catholic, or even to have been one, is to feel a certain access to a world wider than the vision allowed by the lens of one’s own birth.You grew up believing that the parish is the

in Tracing the cultural legacy of Irish Catholicism
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of dialectical thinking, the essential alteration of reality. And we also come to understand the role of our own consciousness in constituting this reality inasmuch as the text must be read to have its meaning enacted. (19) Butler is talking about the text of Hegel’s Phenomenology, but as we have seen, exactly the same could be said of Irigaray’s Elemental Passions. It is as far from the rigid binary opposition of Anglo–American philosophical logic as could be imagined. The creativity necessary for mutual relationship requires plurivocity and movement, willingness

in Forever fluid

into a fearful gulf; and the (repressed) fear of difference can result in violence directed towards the ‘other’. Once again it is through Hegel that this logic has its largest impact upon modern continental thought. In Hegel’s Phenomenology (1977), the distinction and then the conjunction between the same and the not–same, the one and the other, is the motor that drives developing consciousness in its journey to Absolute Spirit. If there is a single vignette in Hegel’s Rigid binaries and masculinistic logic writing that has had a greater impact on subsequent thought

in Forever fluid

curious figures – the Knight of Infinite Resignation, capable only of relinquishing the visible and finite world, and the Knight of Faith, capable of grasping finitude on the strength of the absurd. In a certain way, Merleau-Ponty's phenomenology of perception can be understood in terms of these movements of resignation and faith. His whole philosophy consisted of an attempt to establish that we are indeed a part of this world. Human perception does not merely exist within us, but occurs to us through our embeddedness in the infinite web of viewpoints that surrounds us

in Descending with angels

‘the presence of an unthinkable in thought’ and ‘the presence to infinity of another thinker in the thinker, who shatters every monologue of a thinking self’ (2005b: 163; see also Marks 2010 : 69). In this context I understand Hegel's notion of self-consciousness as the freedom and peace of mind that can be experienced upon realising that autonomous mastery is not possible. Hegel's phenomenology parallels that of Merleau-Ponty when he describes the dependency of subjective human vision on the vast, normative, all-encompassing viewpoint that

in Descending with angels
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Emmanuel Levinas and Irigaray

Phenomenology of Perception, ‘The Body in its Sexual Being’), and the feminine body, or the feminine, is not equivocation (as Lévinas suggests in Totality and Infinity). (28; translation emended) Irigaray indicts Levinas for thinking only of himself and not of the other, who is woman. ‘This description of pleasure given by Levinas is unacceptable to the extent that it presents man as the sole subject exercising his desire and his appetite upon the woman who is deprived of subjectivity except to seduce him’ (1991b: 115). In contrast to Irigaray’s celebration of a disciplined

in Divine love
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especially the significance of manuscript reception in the study of religious phenomenology (as in Eamon Duffy, Marking the Hours: English People and Their Prayers 1240–1570 (New Haven and London, 2006)). 8 John Bale, Illustrium maioris Britanniae , scriptorum , hoc est , Angliae , Cambriae , ac Scotiae summarium … (Wesel, 1548), fol. 102v, and in his footsteps Humphrey Hody, De Bibliorum textibus originalibus , versionibus Græcis et Latina Vulgata libri IV (Oxford, 1705), p. 430; P. Martin, ‘Le texte Parisien de la Vulgate Latine

in Approaching the Bible in medieval England