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Reconstruction and Soldier Settlement in the Empire Between the Wars
Author: Kent Fedorowich

Research on soldier settlement has to be set within the wider history of emigration and immigration. This book examines two parallel but complementary themes: the settlement of British soldiers in the overseas or 'white' dominions, Australia, Canada, New Zealand and South Africa, between 1915 and 1930. One must place soldier settlement within the larger context of imperial migration prior to 1914 in order to elicit the changes in attitude and policy which occurred after the armistice. The book discusses the changes to Anglo-dominion relations that were consequent upon the incorporation of British ex-service personnel into several overseas soldier settlement programmes, and unravels the responses of the dominion governments to such programmes. For instance, Canadians and Australians complained about the number of ex-imperials who arrived physically unfit and unable to undertake employment of any kind. The First World War made the British government to commit itself to a free passage scheme for its ex-service personnel between 1914 and 1922. The efforts of men such as L. S. Amery who attempted to establish a landed imperial yeomanry overseas is described. Anglicisation was revived in South Africa after the second Anglo-Boer War, and politicisation of the country's soldier settlement was an integral part of the larger debate on British immigration to South Africa. The Australian experience of resettling ex-servicemen on the land after World War I came at a great social and financial cost, and New Zealand's disappointing results demonstrated the nation's vulnerability to outside economic factors.

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Heather Streets

Army are found to be physically unfit for military service’. 7 In light of the hostile climate between Britain and Europe this was a serious problem indeed, for the report solemnly declared that ‘no nation was ever yet for any long time great and free, when the army it put into the field no longer represented its own virility and manhood’. 8 Yet while it cannot be said that the military achieved its

in Martial races
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Arnold White and the parochial view of imperial citizenship
Daniel Gorman

. 25 Arnold White, ‘Race Culture,’ in The Views of Vanoc: An Englishman’s Outlook (London, 1910), p. 285. 26 White reported that in 1898 the medical department of the army rejected 23,287 out of 66,501 recruits because they were deemed physically unfit for

in Imperial citizenship
Kent Fedorowich

posture. Repeated warnings were dispatched to the OSC that Canadian landing regulations would be strictly enforced. Safeguards, such as a more thorough medical examination at the port of disembarkation, were suggested. Disabled pensioners were singled out, and Ottawa insisted that the physically unfit be stopped at Canadian ports and deported before they become a public charge. 86 The Soldier Settlement Board emphasised

in Emigrants and empire
J.W.M. Hichberger

context. The street urchin is from the very class that would be recruited into the army as an adult, and precisely the type who had been found to be physically unfit to serve. He is, however, robust and healthy-looking, but, more than that, he is full of the right kind of sentiment — patriotic and militaristic. The painting must therefore be read as a reassurance. Sons of the Empire still existed

in Images of the army
John M. MacKenzie

sport, adventure, and exploration in Canada, India, the Far East, and Russia. Bumbleby-Phipps, who is physically unfit and something of a coward, hopes to secure a title by some geographical feat. But travel and hunting under Gilmore’s tutelage make a man even of him while turning the boys into young heroes. Stables succeeds in mixing excitement and danger, shooting exploits and satirical fun in an unusual

in Imperialism and juvenile literature
The Public Service Commission, 1886–87
Mrinalini Sinha

populations in the North-West Provinces would welcome the appointment of ‘effeminate Bengalis’, because the latter would be unable to establish control over the districts under their charge. 89 Similarly, the Anglo-Indian Principal of Lahore College testified that Bengalis were morally and physically unfit to govern ‘virile Muslim populations’. 90 Since ‘excitable races’ required a ‘strong hand

in Colonial masculinity
Satadru Sen

physically unfit for military service. On the other, the conduct of the fighting – with its initial defeats and the subsequent “dirty war” against Boer guerrillas, including the wholesale burning of farms and the notorious incarceration of women and children in concentration camps – seriously damaged the image of British military chivalry. 95 The compensatory reaction in Britain included a surfeit of athletic machismo. In creating the Rhodes scholarship, Cecil Rhodes was at pains to emphasize that the grants were intended not for

in Migrant races
A dominion responsibility
Kent Fedorowich

suggested. Disabled pensioners were singled out, and Ottawa insisted that the physically unfit be stopped at Canadian ports and deported before they became a public charge. 107 The SSB emphasised continually that only those ex-imperials selected and accepted by its overseas office would be eligible for the benefits under the 1919 Act. 108 If ‘other Imperial ex-Service men

in Unfit for heroes
The failure of the Anzac legend
Kent Fedorowich

to Haggard in 1916, asked Premier Lawson of Victoria? ‘Fair and nebulous words, that is all,’ replied Millen. 82 The onus therefore remained on the states to decide how many British ex-servicemen they wanted to assist. But like the Canadians, Australians soon complained about the number of ex-imperials who arrived physically unfit and unable to undertake employment of any kind. Conversely, reports

in Unfit for heroes