An international research initiative run by the Development Learning Programme based at the
University of Birmingham. See: www.dlprog.org/research/thinking-and-working-politically-community-of-practice.php .
By the same token, elites must have super-brains.
Since the mid 2000s, there has been a growing number of computer games and software
programmes that claim to allow interested parties to experience what it is like to be a refugee
or subject to a disaster. The Darfur content on Google Layers, for
Lewis Hine’s Photographs of Refugees for the American Red Cross, 1918–20
Sonya de Laat
Recent interventions in visual theory claim the camera affords the disenfranchised a form of political participation through the civil space opened up by the medium, a space where creator, subject, and spectator intersect ( Azoulay, 2008 ; de Laat, 2019 ). Beyond merely being a technology for producing pictures, the camera is understood as mediating social relations, and as such is an inherently political medium. Crucial to this formulation is visibility: being seen enables participation in a politicalcommunity, even if only through a