also political theorists, sociologists, and philosophers turned to friendship to reimagine citizenship and politicalcommunity. In Subtle Bodies , Ned and his college gang hope to ‘somehow generaliz[e]’ their friendship into a broader politics. In the next section of this Introduction, I show that, over the past four decades, there has been a far-reaching revival of critical interest in this very possibility.
Friendship, community, and liberalism’s ‘crisis of citizenship’
Joris – the cynical lawyer whom Ned has the most trouble convincing to sign his anti
in previous chapters – but of the connection between the themes of politicalcommunity, citizenship, and male friendship that the novel will explore (33).
Because Marny’s academic specialism is ‘American colonial history’, Robert is keen to have his old friend on board to ‘take the long view’ and to interpret their project in Detroit within a broader historical context (53). In Chapter 1 , I explored how Roth’s American Trilogy also took the ‘long view’ of American democracy, connecting the politics of the 1990s to a series of earlier periods in US history
Friendship: Katherine Philips
and Homoerotic Desire’, Studies in English Literature, 1500–1900, 46 (2006): 523–42
Andreadis, Harriette, ‘The Sapphic-Platonics of Katherine Philips, 1632–1664’, Signs:
Journal of Women in Culture and Society, 15 (1989): 34–60
Applegate, Joan, ‘Katherine Philips’s “Orinda upon Little Hector”: An Unrecorded
Musical Setting by Henry Lawes’, English Manuscript Studies 1100–1700, 4 (1993):
Barash, Carol, English Women’s Poetry, 1649–1714: Politics, Community and Linguistic
Authority (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996)
‘negates’ community’ ( 1993 :
112). In his 2016 text The Disavowed Community , Nancy admits his
deployment of the political nature of community in his original text
The Inoperative Community was ‘not always coherent or
clear’, but locates this problem as a fundamental component of
politicalcommunity itself: ‘A crucial
paradox lies at the heart of this matter of community (and
Philip Roth’s I Married a Communist (1998) and The Human Stain (2000)
indicates how the novel looks beyond filial bonds to consider what other kinds of ‘allegiances and affiliations’ might structure a life and a politicalcommunity. Through their friendship, the novel ultimately calls into question Nathan’s notion of masculine independence, and his decision to live apart from the world.
As well as noting the novel’s similarities to The Ghost Writer , critics have also pointed to the resemblance between Ira and the Swede in American Pastoral. Structurally, both characters appear to play comparable roles within their narratives and
Michael Chabon’s Telegraph Avenue (2012) and Jonathan Lethem’s The Fortress of Solitude (2003)
different register of political potentiality.
In elucidating this different register, I turn back to Derrida’s The Politics of Friendship (1997) and his suggestion that Aristotelian civic republicanism renders citizenship a militaristic form of fraternity, resulting in an exclusionary and repressive kind of politicalcommunity. 15 In this regard, Derrida’s analysis shares an affinity with the work of Jean-Luc Nancy and Maurice Blanchot, who also sought to defamiliarise the idea of an ‘organic’ or ‘natural’ community constituted by a
vindicating the self by turning ‘self-love’ into a prompt to Christian
charity and general benevolence; the playful exhibition or painful
exploration of self-fragmentation through Augustan satire and
diaries; the search through fiction for a symbolic solution to the
problematic experience of inner division and discontinuity; the twin
gestures, as the American and French revolutions confronted British
selves with the spectacle of collective action, of Romantic retreat
into nature and self, and radical effort at conjuring up a nationwide
politicalcommunity through public
its individualised citizens’.37 In these views, the citizen is a political
entity and the smallest unit that makes up the state. As such, the
citizen does not only enjoy the rights that come with membership in
the politicalcommunity, but also assumes the duties that come with
citizenship. In this framework, citizenship defines identity.38 Yasemin
Soysal notes: ‘Citizenship defines bounded populations, with a specific set of rights and duties, excluding “others” on the grounds of
nationality.’39 Marshall’s specific definition, with operative words
express a wholly different articulation of the ‘self’ – a spiritual wit.
1 Carol Barash, English Women’s Poetry, 1649–1714: Politics, Community, and Linguistic Authority (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1996),
2 Killigrew’s father, Dr Henry Killigrew, edited her Poems and had them
published the year after she died.
3 Marilyn L. Williamson, Raising Their Voices: British Women Writers,
1650–1750 (Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1990), p. 30.
4 See Anne Killigrew, ‘My Rare Wit Killing Sin’: Poems of a Restoration
Courtier, ed. Margaret J. M
, 1686, pp. av–b2v. All subsequent references to Killigrew’s verse will be taken
from this volume.
2 See H. Weinbrot, ‘Dryden’s “Anne Killigrew”: towards a new pindaric political ode’, in
R. DeMaria (ed.), British Literature 1640–1789: A Critical Reader, Blackwell, Oxford,
2008, pp. 114–25, at n. 4.
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margaret j. m. ezell
3 See C. Barash, English Women’s Poetry, 1649–1714: Politics, Community, and Linguistic
Authority, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1996; and M. J. M. Ezell, ‘The post
humous publication of women