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steal away or ‘take’ unsuspecting mortals (almost always women or children); supernatural imposters, or fairy-changelings, then took their place in the human world. Irish people commonly associated fairywomen with ‘specific places’;15 as they did so, they mapped meaning onto the female body and the Irish topography. Women who wandered in forbidden or profane places were particularly likely to be ‘taken away’.16 Fairy belief, therefore, reflected realities while it cautioned ‘deviant’ women and constructed an ideal world of gender segregation. It consistently advocated

in Irish women and the creation of modern Catholicism, 1850–1950

’ were premised on this confidence in the profane animalism of human nature. 23 Catholic girls who grew up in a rural setting were habitually exposed to material examples of what they would later understand to be ‘the facts of life’. Indeed, ‘the facts of life’ was a phrase that Angela and a number of other interviewees used repeatedly when discussing their sexual education – ‘facts’ suggesting an

in The Pope and the pill

. For many liberal Catholic women, later marriage saw their faith move into a new conceptual space. It was a space that was defined by two key features. It stood outside their sense of self, a set of abstract questions and codes to be interrogated by this central agent. It was also a space that was juxtaposed to the physical, profane demands of sexuality. In many ways, the interviewees’ testimony seems to

in The Pope and the pill

Antiochus Epiphanes, King of Syria from 175 BCE , against whom the Maccabees eventually revolted. 40 1 Maccabees 1:43–5: ‘And King Antiochus wrote to all his kingdom, that all the people should be one: and every one should leave his own law. And all nations consented according to the word of King Antiochus. And many of Israel consented to his service, and they sacrificed to idols, and profaned the sabbath.’ 41 Alexander III of Macedon (356–323 BCE ). 42 Wyclif had argued in his logical

in John Wyclif