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close of the high middle-ages, however, these elements remained apart from ‘profane domains of life and experience’ (Habermas, 1997a : 214). The Reformation would change this. Weber examined the process of ethical rationalisation it set in motion. The religious asceticism that flowered in medieval monastic orders had to penetrate all extrareligious departments of life , so that profane actions were also subjected to the maxims of the ethic of conviction (which was at first anchored in religion). Weber

in Habermas and European integration
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Aspects of the ‘triangular’ relations between Europeans, Muslims and Jews

out a clear message to its [the Netherland’s] Muslim citizens: whoever does not accept the Dutch secular and ultra-liberal way of life – was free to leave’.6 Profaning God is no longer a crime in the Netherlands. In November 2012 the Dutch parliament – in spite of far Right and conservative opposition – revoked the 1930s Blasphemy Law that forbade the profanation of God. The Act created another thorny issue between the Dutch people and the Muslim minority, although the law had not been enforced for the last 50 years. Criticism of Islam and its sanctities thus became

in Haunted presents

rate no good reasons for denying the possibility that religions still bear a valuable semantic potential for inspiring other people beyond the limits of the particular community of faith, once that potential is delivered in terms of its profane truth content. (Habermas, 2008c : 20) Mapping antimodernism Figure 7.3 brings together themes from the preceding reflections on modernity and its critics. In order to facilitate empirical research, heuristic principles are drawn from the earlier considerations

in Habermas and European integration

production and thereby the relations of production, and with them the whole relations of society … Constant revolutionising of production, everlasting uncertainty and agitation distinguish the bourgeois epoch from all earlier ones. All fixed, fast frozen relations, with their train of ancient and venerable prejudices and opinions, are swept away … All that is solid melts into air … All that is holy is profaned … The bourgeoisie

in Antisemitism and the left

the circumstances of the present it is often a rhetorical conceit. Undeviating cosmopolitans always engage respectfully with difference, but never accept any fundamentalism, religious or otherwise, on its own terms. They regard everything as open to criticism, and nothing as beyond criticism. (In Durkheimian terms nothing is sacred, everything is profane.) Their irony

in These Englands
The English union in the writings of Arthur Mee and G.K. Chesterton

engaged fiercely with Protestant and Whig narratives of English history. He projected the English people as never more certain of their national purpose as when winning their spurs for Christendom in the Crusades under the inspiration of their new national saint, St George. But the Reformation led to the displacement of their religious life, so profane had English Christianity

in These Englands

. However, it is notable that unlike most writers associated with the Frankfurt School, whose cultural interests rarely extend beyond the realm of ‘high’ modern art, Bloch turns his attention to a far wider range of socio-​cultural phenomena. Juxtaposing the sacred and the profane, the ideal and the material, the subjective and the objective, the religious and the secular, the past and the present, Bloch seeks a way beyond the strict dictates of crude accumulation (of capital and culture) and towards a more constructive (re)appropriation and curation of things past. Bloch

in Critical theory and feeling
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Melancholic dispositions and conscious unhappiness

quotidian context, repositioning them in an alternative constellation, prompting repressed meanings to be revealed. Yet, while such revelations are said to temporarily ‘flash up’ at a moment of danger, they do not constitute religious epiphanies; on the contrary, they remain thoroughly materialistic, anthropological, creaturely –​ profane illuminations, in Benjamin’s own terms.56 In trying to reconstitute a kind of active engagement and agency, melancholia and Surrealism share a common suspicion over the constitutive powers of the rationalizing subject, and instead

in Critical theory and feeling
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Europe and its Muslim minorities

girl stood up and said, ‘Sorry, teacher. I think that’s me. It’s pronounced Alison Allen’. The Muslims’ visibility seems to arouse resistance and revulsion, and even worse, ugly and cruel reactions: the immigrants are ‘shitting and pissing’ ­everywhere. The ‘yellow streaks of urine’ of the ‘sons of Allah’ profane the Italian marble (‘How could they succeed in hitting so well that target protected by a balcony and more than two yards distant from their urinary apparatus?’). And according to the Italian Oriana Fallaci, they are ‘breeding like rats’: They breed too

in Haunted presents
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Toward an ethical vision

spiritual empire within a secular empire and stressed that between the pure and the evil there was a third space, namely the profane, which was legitimate and could be mobilized to combat evil. By contrast, the evolution of Judaism and Islam was different. Both faiths emerged in a desert, in a physical and cultural sense, and both regarded the surrounding world as pagan—a culture that was to be eradicated, not respected. Thus, one can speak of holistic systems harboring a dichotomous conception of good and evil that set the stage for monotheistic politics, that is

in Arab liberal thought in the modern age