Works of travel have been the subject of increasingly sophisticated studies in recent years. This book undermines the conviction with which nineteenth-century British writers talked about darkest Africa. It places the works of travel within the rapidly developing dynamic of Victorian imperialism. Images of Abyssinia and the means of communicating those images changed in response to social developments in Britain. As bourgeois values became increasingly important in the nineteenth century and technology advanced, the distance between the consumer and the product were justified by the scorn of African ways of eating. The book argues that the ambiguities and ambivalence of the travellers are revealed in their relation to a range of objects and commodities mentioned in narratives. For instance, beads occupy the dual role of currency and commodity. The book deals with Henry Morton Stanley's expedition to relieve Emin Pasha, and attempts to prove that racial representations are in large part determined by the cultural conditions of the traveller's society. By looking at Joseph Conrad's Heart of Darkness, it argues that the text is best read as what it purports to be: a kind of travel narrative. Only when it is seen as such and is regarded in the context of the fin de siecle can one begin to appreciate both the extent and the limitations of Conrad's innovativeness.
embrace the ‘muscular Christianity’ formerly reserved
for the public schools, as this would be a route to combating
‘degeneracy’ and the ‘savage’ instincts of
the urban poor, while this study has only touched upon the class and
gender messages carried within racialrepresentations, it is certain
that the popularity and longevity of the ‘colonial subject’
within the classroom and popular literature rested
their product, the commoditisation of
experience and of person, and on the relationship between the literature
and its society afford the opportunity for an implicit contrast with
ideas of travel and heroism earlier in the century, and prove, I hope
beyond any doubt, that racialrepresentations are in large part
determined by the cultural conditions of the traveller’s society;
that these therefore
German investigations of Australian Aboriginal skeletal remains, c. 1860
skulls or from using his sympathetic
portraits of Billy and Tilki as racialrepresentations.
Whereas Becker seems to have engaged in these dehumanising
investigations in the belief this would contribute to the
‘amelioration’ of the living conditions of Australia's colonised
peoples, Ecker and Lucae had no interest in the living individuals whose remains
they investigated, other than as representatives of their ‘race’. As
Representing Jewish wartime experience in French crime fiction of the 1950s and 1960s
novels such as La Perte de vue: roman du temps de la Kollaboration (1986),
Non-sens (1971) and Choc en retour (2009). These novels all focus to a greater or lesser extent on crimes of collaboration and their consequences.
31 See Bryan Cheyette, ‘Introduction: semitism and the cultural realm’, in Constructions of ‘the Jew’ in English Literature and Society: RacialRepresentations
1875–1945 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993), pp. 1–12, for a
discussion of Jewish representations and cultural identity.
‘the Jew’ in English Literature and
Society. RacialRepresentations 1875–1945, Cambridge, 1993, pp. 9,
Good examples so far are Kester Aspden, Fortress Church. The English
Roman Catholic Bishops and Politics, 1903–1963, Leominster, 2002;
Adrian Hastings, A History of English Christianity 1920–1990,
London, 1991; Dennis Sewell, Catholics. Britain’s Largest Minority,
Hürten, Deutsche Katholiken, p. 559. The numbers for England and
Wales are estimates, because the census in Britain no longer asked for
denominations. The estimates were derived from
Jews in Portsmouth during the long eighteenth century
, Annals of Portsmouth (London: Hamilton, Adams, 1880), pp. 65–7.
66 Hampshire Chronicle , 28 June 1773.
67 Bryan Cheyette, Constructions of ‘the Jew’ in English Literature and Society: RacialRepresentations, 1875–1945 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993), p. 12.
68 Roxann Wheeler, The Complexion of Race: Categories of Difference in Eighteenth-Century British Culture (Philadelphia: University of Pennysylvania Press, 2000), pp. 300–1.
69 Roth, ‘The
is troubling only in respect of the strong connection in the
popular imagination at this time between black people and sexual transgression.
Like most racialrepresentations, it was classically bifurcated and profoundly
ambivalent. Black women have been imagined as sexually desirable and exotic.
Thus in her early career Shirley Bassey was ‘the Sexy singer from Cardiff ’s Tiger
Bay’ with a ‘voice like soup laced with whisky’ and a ‘fur-topped, skin-tight
dress’.103 Conversely, her father and his contemporary black sailors were viewed
as a sexual menace to white
the Birmingham Social Credit Group at
Queen’s College, Birmingham, 8 November 1933. CI, Notes and
Articles by CF O’Brian Donaghue. For G.K. Chesterton nationality
and ‘Englishness’ was bound to one place. His quasi-religious
definition of nationality also meant that Jews could never be English.
Bryan Cheyette, Constructions of ‘the Jew’ in English Literature and
Society. RacialRepresentations 1875–1945, Cambridge, 1993, pp. 184,
At the time, G.K. Chesterton was president of the League, part of the
executive committee were Hilaire Belloc, W. Blackie, Alan Bland