, debating what
the next steps should be, receiving advice from other revolutionary leaders from Eastern Europe, giving interviews,
receiving guests from outside, managing donations—such as
the recording studio that was donated by George Soros and
that allowed many of these meetings and debates to be
recorded—and putting together the group’s magazine.22
Mariana Celac, one of the founding members of the group,
compares the space with that of the Smolnii Institute in St
Petersburg, a space where similar meetings were held years
ago—meetings that allowed for the formation of
civil society institutions that acted more as an official political opposition
than a representative of the population at large, as well as by
further alienating the few elites that did manage to gain the
trust of the population at large during those tense months
following the Romanian Revolution.
1 Nicolae Badilescu, interview by author (tape recording, Timisoara:
December 13th, 2004).
2 Claudiu Iordache, interview by author (tape recording, Bucharest:
January 15th, 2005); Lorin Fortuna, interview by author (tape recording,
Timisoara: December 14th, 2004).
contrast little attention has been paid to the ways that Africans in the UK have become an important driver of innovation and developed a stronger voice in UK politics.
The importance of the diaspora
The UK’s 2001 census found that Sub-Saharan Africans constituted Britain’s fastest-growing minority group during the 1990s, with 486,000 respondents recording their ethnicity as black African, outnumbering Britain’s Caribbean population ( ibid .: 27). Yet illegal migration and related underreporting suggest that this
course of events, recording his excitement at being able to follow on an
underground radio from Paris the historic events of the city’s liberation
on 25 August 1944. A career as a research and statistical officer with the
national airline Aer Lingus meant that economics increasingly engaged
his attention, leading to an academic appointment in the subject at UCD
in 1959, subsequently gaining his PhD. As his interest in economics
grew, he had come to question the continuing worth of the protectionist
policies that the country had followed since the 1930s. Increasingly
Anti-terrorism powers and vernacular (in)securities
Lee Jarvis and Michael Lister
debate, as in the above example, to more mundane, yet frequently
conscious, decisions within everyday interactions:
If we’re talking on the phone or
chatting online, we avoid taking this terminology, bomb and this
and that. Why? There might be someone recording that.
They might be keeping an eye on it. And if we
numbers of terrorist attacks in three illustrative cases: India, Northern Ireland,
and the United States. These three cases show some of the cross-national
variation in terms of the recording of data. One of the most notable points of
difference is the discrepancy in terms of “unknown” perpetrators and unattributed attacks in India as compared to the United States and Northern Ireland.
The number of “unknown” perpetrators in India is 48 percent, which is slightly
above average in comparison to the database as a whole (46 percent). The proportions of attacks carried out
tribes became landless
(Falah, 1985:38). Their placement under the Military Government, their seclusion as well as their economic hardship rendered ordinary Bedouins dependent
on the sheikhs who were granted substantial authority.
As the tribe was considered an administrative unit headed by the sheikh, he
became responsible for registering the residents with the Interior Ministry –
recording births and deaths, validating marriages and signing affidavits.
Moreover, he was given the role of gatekeeper, whose endorsement was indispensable for anyone who wished to get
reading. Reportedly, additional articles had been included without
consulting the Duma Committee for State Building, which was in charge
of presenting this particular law to the State Duma. According to the
stenogram recording the Duma session of the law’s third reading, Boris
Nadezhdin, a deputy of the SPS faction and a member of the Committee
for State Building, told the assembled parliamentarians
you have been handed a letter written and signed by members of the
Committee for State Building. One paragraph in the letter is especially
important: the draft text
sense of national unity. For instance, a visit to the museum begins with
ethnographic maps and a timeline recording when different ethnic groups migrated into
Vietnam. As the visitor’s eye moves along the timeline, these groups
are seen to join the linear flow of Vietnam’s common history and
Vietnamese official historiography privileges the theme of
resistance to foreign aggression, a trend clearly illustrated in
summaries of the outcomes of
those investigations. Daily medical checks on detainees were instituted
by an amendment to the Directive that governed interrogation in internal
security contexts, as detailed below.
Before the Bowen Inquiry concluded, there were already
procedures in place for recording and responding to allegations of
mistreatment. Allegations made to the Review Tribunal, set up to