, 2000) and
audio-recordings of spontaneous everyday interactions. The interview is also
increasingly used as a way to gain a structured insight into people’s (language)
ideologies. Triangulation has significantly improved understandings of the
local social structure, including the kinds of social groupings and categories
that are salient, the social practices and ideologies linked to them, and the role
of language in their construction (Eckert, 2000; Ochs, 1992).
The influence of developments in sociolinguistics was evident in our
approach to the interview. People who
forms of qualitative research in
several, quite specific, ways. Up to the early 1970s a great deal of it relied on
fieldnotes as data. However, with cheap and portable audio-recorders becoming
available towards the end of that period, these increasingly came to be used
alongside, or instead of, writing fieldnotes.7 Later still, camcorders or video cameras
also began to be employed by some qualitative researchers, and these too offered
advantages, in particular the possibility of replaying recordings of sequences of
social interaction audiovisually and thereby
for the gangs as we sat recording her oral history interview in the
sunshine in the garden of her terraced home in the centre of Peterborough in 2011. She later channelled the emotion of her recollections
into a new poem on the subject.50 When larger, more commercial
temporary work agencies specialising in international migrant workers
became predominant from the 1990s, Keely had seen her family move
out of the labour-supplying business because, she believed, it became
impossible to both compete and be humane:
And they were quite … the gangmasters used
Newspapers, magazines and pamphlets have always been central, almost sacred, forms of communication within Irish republican political culture. While social media is becoming the primary ideological battleground in many democracies, Irish republicanism steadfastly expresses itself in the traditional forms of activist journalism. Shinners, Dissos and Dissenters is a long-term analysis of the development of Irish republican activist media since 1998 and the tumultuous years following the end of the Troubles. It is the first in-depth analysis of the newspapers, magazines and online spaces in which the differing strands of Irish republicanism developed and were articulated during a period where schism and dissent defined a return to violence. Based on an analysis of Irish republican media outlets as well as interviews with the key activists that produced them, this book provides a compelling long-term snapshot of a political ideology in transition. It reveals how Irish Republicanism was moulded by the twin forces of the Northern Ireland Peace Process and the violent internal ideological schism that threatened a return to the ‘bad old days’ of the Troubles. This book is vital for those studying Irish politics and those interestedin activism as it provides new insights into the role that modern activist media forms have played in the ideological development of a 200-year-old political tradition.
Hannah Jones, Yasmin Gunaratnam, Gargi Bhattacharyya, William Davies, Sukhwant Dhaliwal, Emma Jackson and Roiyah Saltus
lost bodily expression
and vocal nuance. This is why some researchers work between an audio/visual
recording and a transcript. Listening to or watching an interview or research
interaction can enrich analysis, helping us to notice extra-linguistic data
– when someone is being sarcastic or feels uncomfortable. This type of
work is also more time-consuming, so needs to be addressed in the planning
stages of a study. Dissemination is another
people who had not reached adulthood in 1971.
7 Mohammed Israel, interviewed 25 February 2006 by Jamil Iqbal for Swadhinata
Trust and University of Surrey, ‘Oral History Project’. The EPLF was dissolved when
the broader Birmingham Action Committee was established.
8 Interviewed by Caroline Adams, 19 March 1998, tape recording (Tower Hamlets
Local History Library).
10 Sheikh Mannan, interviewed by Caroline Adams, 19 March 1998, tape recording,
and by the author, 30 March 2002.
11 Faruque Ahmed, Bengal Politics in Britain: Logic, Dynamics and Disharmony (North
conversation while running without becoming breathless.
Audio recording was the next challenge to overcome in using GAIs for running, which is far from simple. Not only is there the issue of somehow carrying an audio recording device while running, but ensuring that it can pick up all parties without being dominated by the noise of wind or passing vehicles can also be difficult. So far, I have used two different set-ups for audio recording. One of my projects was based in Plymouth, UK. Plymouth is a relatively small and quiet English city, which afforded a simpler
generated empathy between them.
Walking also aids kinaesthetic learning through the engagement of multiple senses and an innate desire to ‘show and tell’, as explored by Pink ( 2015 ) as part of what she terms ‘sensory ethnography’. Mobile methodologies like walking can create problems, especially around recording data. Jones et al. ( 2008 ) are critical of studies which do not attempt to physically map the places where participants make revelations, believing there needs to be a precise record of where something has been said so that this can be linked with the
collected background contextual information relating to these factors, but it was recorded in writing prior to the interview to ensure anonymity in the audio recording (Slater, 2011 ). Some oral historians, including myself, use standardised interview questions to compare responses from different interviewees. Others have a schedule of topics to discuss. Where questions are used, the type of question asked should be considered. Ideally, a combination of open and closed questions should be used to allow the interviewee to share anything they feel is relevant. For example
Conducting (self) interviews at sea for a surfer’s view of
observed in conjunction with their verbal responses, all of which are affected by the environment bearing on their senses. Self-interviews thus have wide application as a mobile method, where traditional techniques and modes of recording fail to capture the nuances of movement and motion as they are happening.
In the case of my research, taking place at sea, the interview participant is not only thinking about surfing, but is also seeing, hearing, feeling it. The smells and sounds of the coast, the temperature and movement of the water, the taste of salt in the